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Designing a Study (Part 2) & Research Ethics

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Sociology 2206A/B
Ryan Broll

Lecture 3Jan 23 2012 Designing a StudyQuantitative Design Issues1 Variables y Central to quantitative research y A concept that can take on multiple values ex that can vary y Attributesthe values or categories of a variable o Male is an attribute of the variable gender y 3 types independent dependent interveningIndependent Variables y Cause variable y Questions to consider o Does it come before other variables in time o If the variables occur at the same time does one variable have an impact on another variableDependent Variables y Effect variable y Research questions are often expressed in terms of the dependent variable because this is what we are trying to explainIntervening Variables y Comes between the independent and dependent variable and explains the connection between them y Helps to explain the causal relationship y Ex Durkheims Theory of SuicideMarital statusSocial integrationsuicideThe Hypothesis y A tentative statement of a relationship between two variables y Five characteristics o It has at least two variables o It expresses a causeeffect relationship between the variables o It can be expressed as a prediction or an expected future outcome o It is logically linked to a research question and a theory o It is falsifiableThe Null Hypothesis y Negative evidence is given more importancelogic of discomfirming hypotheses y Quantitative researchers foam hypothesesthat there is no relationship or association between two variables o Hypothesiss students who attend every class have high grades than students who do not o Null hypothesis there is no relationship between class attendance and students grades y Alternative hypothesis class attendance has a positive effect on student gradeLevels of Analysis y The level of social reality to which theoretical explanations refer y Social psychological mircoorganizationalinstutional mesosocial structural macro y Helps to determine the kings of assumptions concept and theories that a researcher uses
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