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Sociology 2206A/B
Ryan Broll

First TheoremTells us the shape of the sampling distribution and tells us its mean and standard deviationIf we start off with some trait that is normally distributed across the population IQ height and take an infinite number of equally sized random samples from that population the sampling distribution of sample means will be normal Central limit theoremFor any trait or variable even those that are not normally distributed in the population as the sample size grows larger the sampling distribution of sample means will become normal in shapeSampling ErrorThe difference between the statistic sample and the parameter populationTheoretical construct it is impossible to know the true population parameter Should theoretically be reduced with a representative sampleConfidence intervals allow for the possibility of errorDont generally take thousands of samplesOther issues related to samplingHidden populationsSample size rules of thumb o Small population less then 1000 30 o Medium population 1000010 o Large population 1500001 o Extremely large population more then 10 million0025 o Subgroup analysis50grop o Small representative sample is better o As sample size grows you dont get the same accuracyOther things that effect sample representativenessUndercoverage certain groups missing from sampleNonresponse missing data people not answering certain questions particularly with incomeResponse bias respond how they think the researcher wants them to respond rather then true beliefs or opinions especially with moral judgment questionsThe instrument itself wording of questions order of questionsSurvey researchMost widely used method of gathering data and informationExploratory descriptive explanatory research
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