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Sociology 2260A/B
Daphne Heywood

thWednesday February 29 2012 Sociology of LawMarx and LawLecture 6 Developmental Years o Born in 1818 in Trier Germany o Family was welloffGrandfather was a rabbiFather was a successful lawyer o Studied law in Bonn and philosophy at U of BerlinAcquainted with Wilhelm Hegel at a relatively early age o At 24 became an editor of a newspaper in CologneEarly Years o Radical views against Tsar Nicholas I and censorship forced him to flee to Paris France Married to Jenny von WestphalenJournalist in France got kicked out of France o Expelled from Francelived in Belgiumo Returned to France and expelled again o Settled in London England for remainder of life until death in 1883Ironically ended up settling in the centre of industrialism and commerceLondon Years o Lived in poverty except for support from friend and collaborator Friedrich Engels the son of a wealthy textile manufacturer o His wife and three children predeceased himLived on welfare for the majority of his life with occasional help from Engels o Spent most of his time in the British MuseumFriedrich Engels o Born in Germany 18201895 o Father was a wealthy mill owner o Young Hegelianexile in Englando Supported Marx financially o Finished last two volumes of Capital o Wrote Condition of the Working Class in England 1845Argued in this text that street crime and crime by the working class was a form of survival adaptation to the conditions under which they lived and workedSome of the first sociological ethnography in poor neighborhoodsA Sociology of Law o Unlike Weber Marx never developed a formal sociology of lawHowever he is one of the three main classical theorists in sociologyHis theories have been suppressed and censored traditionally For human rights law or global law he provides important points In the sociology of law Marx is one of the few theorists who have an explanation for the existence of structural poverty o Marx was more interested in political economy o Law was a subordinate issue o A more fully developed sociology of law emerges from neoMarxist scholars such as Evgeny Pashukanis 1924Historical Context o Whenever you do sociology or criminology dont assume that history doesnt matter o In the late 1500s there was a movement from feudalism to mercantile capitalism and the factory o Widespread poverty and inequality followed o Development of currency and wage labor o Early urban riots labor unrestMarket Considerations o Institutionalization of private property o Ownership of mode of productionCapital land cash machinery distribution o Bourgeoisie and proletariato Wage labor primary among workersWage labor is forced o Commodification of goods and services Beginning of consumerism as we know it todayElementary Marxism o Social existence material determines Mans consciousness culture and ideologyMode of Production key o Property relations are key to understand class stratification o Concentrated on mercantilism and manufacturingdivision of labor o The reason that owners pursue a decreased labor cost is to increase their profit margins Surplus Value o Profits for ownerlabor value above what it actually takes to produce commodities o Profit consists largely of difference between wage labor and surplus value from sales eg productivityMarx considered this a form of exploitationUnpaid labor in effect And forced labor to survive o In other words the owners and bourgeoisie are stealing profits that would without them be split by the workers o Need for reserve force of workers surplus population to keep wage demands low
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