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Criminology.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course Code
Sociology 2266A/B
Professor
Prof

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Criminology9132012 51600 AM Lecture 1 Terms GestaltFunctioning determined by behaviour and nature of the whole social systemSees behaviour in larger contextOpposed to atomismLooks at macro configurationsProcessMechanism of change in social relationsOpposite of staticAssociated with dynamic Viewed as a complex part of events and structuresConflictOpposite of consensus modelBetween persons social units cultures etcCoercion a major elementValues are rulingNot always disruptivePowerIn society some positions have the ability to exercise coercive control over other sectors and positionsAbility of personsgroups to determine the conduct of other personsgroupsStratified interestsClass socialMaterial position income job security upward mobility Prestige in societyRelation to workwage or ownerExampleworking classRaceSocial reactions to facial characteristicsHair andSkin colourSubcategory languageCountry of originGenderNot biological but social division of the sexesConstructed differencesCultural motifsMasculinityFeminityGender rolesPatriarchyIdeologyDominant explanationsUsually associated with State or rulersLegal moral religious valuesFeudal timespreserve wealthIdeas in support of economic systemsTied to theory construction tooTheme of the course Crime is a social conceptDefining of CrimeHistoric debate in fieldDebate started with interest in white collar crimeSutherland 1945Injurious but admin violationsPrevailing definition was the legal oneSellin 1938Death penalty origin of prisonsCriticized legalityConduct norms more if not equally importantTranscended State time and placeSearch for universal categories consensus Edward Sutherland 1945Preferred the term social injury and Notion of legal sanctionsDomain extended beyond criminal lawPaul Tappin 1947Debate between Tappin and SutherlandMust be strictly the study of criminal lawMust be adjudicated criminal Rules trial guiltyArbitraryBusinessmen can be designated criminalsInjury a moral concept Adjudicated offenders represent the closest possible approximation to those who have in fact violated the law carefully selected by the sieving of the due process of the law no other province of social control attempts to ascertain the breach of norms with such rigor and precision Tappin 1962Problems with LegalityBiased towards the lawIgnores importance of devianceIgnores construction of lawtherefore itMasks powerIgnores state organized crimeSchwendingers 1970Historical human rights as backdrop moralEconomic racial and sexual equalityPermits social structure to be studied as casualImperialism racism sexism and poverty crimesPersistent unemploymentNotion of Social HarmCriminal and noncriminal eventsAllows consideration of nation states and their actions
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