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Lecture 13

Sociology 2267A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Reinforcement, Addiction, Dysfunctional Family


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 2267A/B
Professor
Karen Kim Ashby
Lecture
13

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Justice and equity issues
-no lecture 12, class was cancelled
-Sunday 29 2:00, cumulative exam
Monday, April 9, 2018
9:33 AM
Keeping youth out of jail
Differential intervention
o Based on the identification of the type of delinquency associated with the behaviours of
young offenders
o Interventions tailored to meet young offender's treatment needs and the level of risk they
pose to society
Risk of recidivism
Types of delinquency
o 1: coo deliuecy do’t wat to eact to these kids
Refers to tompeorary conduct
Arises with nearly all boys-middle of adolescence- regardless of social class
Limited number of minor/medium offences
Shoplifting, vandalism etc.
Relatively occasional activity
Tied to the process of integrating standards and values
It is a 'testing of social limits' and, with prescriptive feedback, provides a learning
experience
o 2: distinctive delinquency (4 types)
Refers to criminal behaviour
A very small number of young persons whose problems are such that their
social development is affected or compromised
Absence of certain determining influences for personality development
Commit serious or numerous crimes, experience serious difficulties and most
often -resist intervention
Resist any positive intervention
Probationary measure is especially designed for these offenders
But does not fit all needs of young folk
1: Sporadic marginal offenders
Temporary, intermittent, and circumstantial delinquency
Number of episodes no greater than 2 or 3
Offence seriousness -simple theft, mischief, shoplifting, most rarely- break and
enter
Is not common delinquency
Acts emanate form, and at the same time reflect a juvenile maladjustment
that takes the form of excessive risk-taking
They seek immediate gratification
2: regressive inadequate offenders
Delinquency is the path of least resistance
Offences are frequent -motivated by instant gratification and are directed
against property
Most likely to fall into long-term delinquency
Weak social ties
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Ties with others poorly developed
Little sense of belonging to larger community
This pushes them in to more and more deviant behaviour and
develop unhealthy habits
Unproductive when compared to others kids
Needs positive reinforcement
3: explosive conflictual offenders
Significant number of offences reaching a high level of objective seriousness
Offences against persons
Delinquency gains considerable momentum in first half of adolescence
Offensive behaviour as a release from inner tension and pressure
Males act out (externalize and attack others), females act in (cut
selves)
Also called 'crisis delinquency'
Trying to reduce anxiety by acting out
Severe locked in opposition to the dominate society's values and
standards
Less invested in a criminal mindset
Poor relationship with parents, increasing conflict with adults/authority
(authors) Want to help kids to re-establish positive harmonious relationships
with others who care for them
4: autonomous structural offenders
Delinquency is persistent, serious, expansive
It is precocious -often appearing around age 10-11
Serious difficulties in adaptation at school
Conduct disorders
Often a clear history of fighting, vandalism, cruelty, drug abuse
Delinquency has become an 'assumed status'
Reject idea of going to school, and other societal values
They are looking for status, street status
Usually come form severely dysfunctional family environments
The most serious, pernicious and menacing form of criminality
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Quebec's legislative framework
1976
o Transfer of juvenile probation services to the ministry of health and social services
1977
o Youth protection act (YPA) adopted -came into force jan 1979
1993
o Youth rehab services, social services centres, youth protection centres joined forces
Troubled youth in quebec
CLSCs (centre local de services communautaires)
o Offer a variety of services to children, adolescents, and their families to address issues such
as:
Violent and aggressive behaviours of children and adolescents
Academic failure and dropout
Drug addiction
Mental health problems
Adjustment difficulties following family breakups
o When a child's safety or development is compromised, the direct of youth protection must
intervene
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