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Lecture

Lecture 3

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Department
Sociology
Course
Sociology 2267A/B
Professor
Daphne Heywood
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 3 January 22 2014 Theories of Delinquency Early Explanations Explaining Young Offenders in Pioneer Canada • Many children orphaned or abandoned in voyage from Europe • Irish famine (mid-1840’s) left orphans • Poor and illiterate young women from France who came as indentured labourers.Ahuge number. However abandoned their contracts for the call of the streets and the fur trade • Theft quite common, as well as sexual immorality The Fur Trade • Ready market in Europe for furs/ young people could find work o Little supervision, debauchery o FIND SLIDE!!!!!! Liquor • Widely available in upper and lower Canada- Dram shops • Many parents were also alcoholics • Alcohol involved in large percentage of court cases Prostitution • Huge demand for sex workers by men without families (military) • Void filled by unsupervised teenage women • In New France many became pregnant, or committed infanticide due to church prescriptions against abortion Youth Crimes • Most were convicted of minor crimes, including drunkenness, petty theft, and vagrancy (street people). • Factors/factors that was/were beyond the control of the individual… • Beginning in the early 1800’s writers have recorded that delinquency is to be found in poor immigrant families living in depressed neighbourhoods… parents were always deemed as defective or unfit NB:An 1816 London commission identified lack of education, improper parental supervision, want of employment, association with thieves and prostitutes, severity of criminal code, defective state of police, and inadequate system of prison discipline. School • 1847, almost half of the eligible children in Upper Canada (Ontario) did not attend free common schools • However… • Between 1850 and 1870, the development of the education system was accompanied by a growth in enrollment that far outstripped that of the growth in population Industrialization Ushers in New Explanations • Industrialization = Urban living • Poor concentrated shanty towns o Orphans lived in private homes, orphanages, and on the streets • Elites and middle class complained: vagrants, begging, children involved in petty theft and vandalism AQuote • The movement to send all children Changes in Family Life • By The turn of the century, two trends had become rooted in society. Day-to-Day activities of the home, including the home-based activities of the children, had been almost entirely delegated to women Childhood Further Differentiated • At the same time, childhood changed. Due to school attendance and organized activities in places like playgrounds, children’s clubs, settlement houses and libraries, children at least many who were older than 6 or 7 left home during the day. In many urban areas such as Toronto, children younger than normal school age spent part of the day away from home in kindergarten Causation • Early explanations of Delinquency used positivist perspectives to explain delinquency • What is positivism? o Using scientific to study measure, the extent of crime, and who is involved in crime Positivism in Criminology • Application of scientific explanations for criminal behaviour • Abase tenet of this persective was that • FIND THIS SLIDE!!!!!! Positivist Explanations • Biology • Evolution • Mental and Physical Defects • Anthropology • Physical/ Social Environment? Positivist School • Lombroso’s (1835-1909) offered biological explanations • NB: “The Born Criminal” • Enrico Ferri’s (1856 • FIND THIS SLIDE!!!!! Ferri • Law of criminal Saturation o Level of criminality determined by social environment and changes • Multiple Causes o Anthropological (age, sex) o Physical (race, climate) o Social Example of a Positivist Explanation of Crime? Whose theory was this? Is ti Scientific • Separate races of human beings evolved different reproductive strategies to cope with different environments and that these strategies led to physical differences in bran size and hence in intelligence. Human beings who evolved in warm bug highly unpredicted environments of Africa adopted a strategy of high reproduction, while human being who migrated to hostile cold of Eutpe FIND REMINADER OF SLIDE • According to Rushton o Blacks more prone to crime, more violent FIND SLIDE!!!! • So how does race based Types of People • Dugdale and Goddard’s Eugenics o What is Eugenics o Preventing certain races from procreating due to undesirable genes o There could be a criminal gene that can be passed on from one generation to the next A‘Positive’for ‘Positivism’ • However, one important finding of positivism is that criminal behaviour can be altered by
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