ContentAnalysis & Unobtrusive Methods
26 Feb 2014
- content analysis:
- examination and coding of documents and texts: printed, visual, aural, virtual
- who writes/reports the info…
- what gets written/reported?
- where was it written/reported?
- why is this issue written/reported?
- when it gets written/reported?
- most importantly, what is left out?
- can be quantitative/qualitative (analyze data over a long period of time)
- i.e. how Sports Illustrated women have changed throughout the years
- i.e. lyrics to songs
- what things can be counted (or otherwise analyzed):
- words, including the pairing of certain words
- i.e. feminist/spirituality, race/politics, rave/drugs, etc.
- subjects and themes look for themes in a transcript
- this included both manifest/latent context
- i.e. the subject of “women in politics,” and whether gender stereotypes are invoked or
- value positions positive/negative view
- designing a code schedule the form where the data are recorded (spread-sheet)
- designing a coding manual set of instructions to coders
- lists what is to be coded, the categories subsumed under each dimension, the numbers
(codes) that correspond to each category, and general guidance for coders
- issues in devising coding schemes:
- categories must be mutually exclusive (no over-lapping)
- categories must be exhaustive (everything must be covered)
- instructions must be clear
- unit of analysis must be clear
- pilot test will reduce risks of error
- qualitative content analysis:
- ethnographic content analysis:
- differs from quantitative content analysis in that the researcher is constantly revising the
themes or categories as the data re examined
- emphasized the content in which the documents were generated
- semiotics: science of signs (seek to expose hidden meanings in texts)
- semiotics terminology:
- sign stands for something else - signifier thing that indicates an underlying meaning
- signified meaning that is pointed to
- denotative meaning manifest/obvious meaning
- connotative meaning secondary meaning that arises with the denotative meaning
- polysemy recognizes that signs may be interpreted differently
- the study of language:
- conversation analysis: - applies to quantitative/qualitative methods
- examines how social order is creating through communication
- social order is an achievement not an objective pre