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Sociology 3321F/G

Harassment: -most like takes place in places where people congregate -schools, universities, workplaces, family settings -studies revealed that women who are not assertive tend to be victimized 2 forms: 1. Quid pro quo sexual harassment -“I give you this, you give me that” 2. Hostile environment sexual harassment -comments about the body -people at the bottom of the hierarchy -they have occupational powerlessness -more likely to be harassed -if a boss, most likely to be left alone -as women achieve positions of power, increasingly, female superiors are harassing male inferiors -the power dimension -what are becoming fairly common, female primary school teachers having affair w/ their young male boy students Rape: -many people say that it has nothing to do w/ sex -desire to degrade and humiliate -in America, about 100 000 women report being raped per year -but rape is one of the most underreported crimes in the US Why? b/c of the stigma that is attached to it -in Ontario, in order to make it easier for women to report it, we have rape shield laws -when the case goes to trial, the media cannot reveal the woman’s name Jane Doe -we know that rape is underreported due to victimization surveys -when asked women if they has ever been raped, the numbers increased from 100 000 to ½ a million -in Canada, the number in 2005 was 26000 but probably only 1/5 the real number (didn’t include survey) -thus, the principle motive is domination and humiliation -arise from early sexual preferences -children abused as children are more likely to engage in it when they are adults -children who were not sexually abused are less likely to be abused as adults -children may have had emotionally cold and distant fathers Social conditions associated w/ rape: -Warhistorically, those who were defeated in war, the victors would come and rape all the women of the defeated city Ex. Red army who moved into Berlin; Germans did the same when they invaded Holland -“macho” male fraternities -some research in participation of athletics -men also get raped by other men -the law says that it’s impossible for women to rape men -takes place in total institutions -where people are kept 24 hours a day, all year long, and year after year -ex. prison, boarding school, military barracks -10% of all rape is male on male -most men who rape other men were heterosexual when they went into prison -but motivated by the desire to dominate and subjugate power trip -some people become sexually aroused by dominating other people =Sadism  Marquee de sad -sexual arousal is produced by domination -some people get aroused by being dominated -SMN # ? = Masochism sexual gratification depends on suffering, physical pain, and humiliation -not completely a power trip Date Rape: -not necessarily involving strangers -for the most part rape takes place b/w people who know each other -many times b/w familyuncles, stepfathers -sometimes called acquaintance rapewhen parties know each other -sometimes trusted religious figure or just a friend -women are more likely to report stranger rape than date rape -ex. “he said, she said” -ex. Koby Bryant -if a woman is raped, a lot of them will immediately take a shower or bath which takes away the evidence Pornography: -legal in Canada -obscenity is illegal -undue exploitation of sex by community standards -who decides if something is obscene?  Judge or jury -decision is the reflection of what is acceptable in the community -difficult to tell when someone crosses the line from being erotic to being obscene -sex w/ violence, sex involving children, bestiality, sex involving degradation all are obscene -sexually explicit material given huge boost from technology -where does opposition to porn come from? -religious groups: associated w/ breakdown in morality -say that porn leads to increases in divorce, illegitimacy, premarital sex, adultery -women’s groups: divided -some oppose and some don’t -sex positive feminismdon’t oppose it -some women’s groups see porn as a power tool -porn objectifies women -that argument is that women are exploited by porn, but if you look at the industry, women make the money -porn industry is increasingly dominated by women who make the couples filmsthe ones that married couples watch -female porn stars have the right to choose their own sexual partner -however, men are also objectified by porn -attempts to ban porn have to also take this into account -community standards try to balance it out -snuff (to kill) moviein some movies, people are actually killed -community standards argument tries to balance free expression -attempts to compromise Prostitution: -people find sex for cash disturbing Why? it’s treating people as a means to an end -“my sexual gratification is the end and you ar
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