Sociology 3321F/G Lecture Notes - Informal Sector, Black Market

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Institutional discrimination: institutional discrimination is the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups that result from the normal operations of society. The informal economy and the underclass: the secondary labor market affecting many members of racial and ethnic minorities has come to be called the informal economy. The informal economy (or underground economy) consists of transfers of money, goods, and services that are not reported to the government. This label describes much of the work in inner-city neighborhoods and poverty-stricken rural areas: workers are employed in the informal economy seasonally or infrequently. The work they do may resemble the work of traditional occupations, such as mechanic, cook, or electrician, but these workers lack the formal credentials to enter such employment. The informal economy also includes unregulated child-care services, garage sales, and the unreported income of craftspeople and street vendors: according to the dual labor market model, minorities have been relegated to the informal economy.

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