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Lecture Four October 10, 2013
Opportunity and Cyclicality
Routine Activities Theory
Two elements of opportunity:
oSuitable target
oLack of capable guardian
Suitable target
Person or property
Property three factors:
oFungible: able to replace or be replaced by an identical item
Lack of a capable guardian
Two primary forms:
oBlocking access
Contrast: nature of white collar crime
Offender has legitimate access to location where crime is committed
Offender is spatially separated from victim
Offender’s actions have superficial appearance of legitimacy
Three techniques:
Abuse of trust
Concealment and conspiracy
Occurs when one person misleads another by making things appear other than as they
really are
Can expand to organization or group
“Relational phenomenon”: requires a deceiver and deceived
Two conditions:
oOne person deliberately misleads another person about nature of reality
oOther person is mislead about reality (or at least misperceives it)
Examples: false statements, advertising
Abuse of trust
Occur in “agent-client relationships” (agency relationships)
Act for/behalf of another individual or organization
Agent: acts for another
Principal: other party in relationship
Simpson (1987)
Cycles of illegality: antitrust violations in corporate America
What is a business cycle?
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