Sociology 1020-002 Set Two
Gender Lecture Notes
• Gender = achieved and learned
• Sex = ascribed
o We are born with our sex
o Based on physiological differences
o Determined at conception as a result of cell formation
o Castor Semenya World athlete that had a debate if she was females because she kept winning. She
went through testing, and was still able to compete.
Becoming our Sex
• The obvious answer is that sex is natural, and biologically determined.
• BUT an estimated 1-3% of babies are born “intersexed.” This is seen as a disorder – as something that needs to be
o “Easier to dig a hole than build a hole” – 90% of intersexed people turn female.
• Masculinity and femininity are socially constructed.
• Social category
• Set of social attitudes that can vary from culture to culture and over time within a society.
• Gender norms: Rules specifying appropriate behavior for each gender.
• Gender Scripts: we know how to behave based on our gender
• “Cis-Gender” – people actively perceiving your gender (biological sex matches gender presentation)
Sex Codes: Premarital Sexual Standards
• Regulates sexual behaviour outside of marriage
• The majority tolerate premarital sex
• How people judge and accept these standards
1. Abstinence Standard
a. Forbids premarital sex
2. Double Standard
a. Expects virginity for females
3. Love Standard
a. Physical expression when love and affection are present
4. Fun Standard
a. Giving and receiving tool of pleasure (not easily accepted by women)
• Reisman a shift of attitudes towards sexuality
Clicker Study: Which one are you?
1. Egalitarian Conservative – less respect for both
2. Egalitarian Libertarians – no respect lost
3. Traditional Double Standard – respect lost for females
4. Reverse Double Standards – respect lost for males
Becoming Our Gender
• Gender Identity (18 months to three years): it is a powerful aspect of self identity, which develops in accordance
with the individuals gender and the social definitions of that gender within the larger gendered order. Develops
o Achieved Status
o Master Status
• Gender performance: anyone can perform a gender. We are always performing a gender identity achieved
status becomes a mastered status: how you are seen socially.
• The mastered status is achieved after three years. The achieved status happens from 18 months to three years. Gendered Order:
• A set of structural relations through
which people are treated differently
because of their gender.
• Patriarchy: a system of dominance in
which cultural, political and
economic structures have been created by
men and are maintained for the
benefit of men as a group
• “Privilege” – privilege is based on
gender – men are favorable
• Process by which individuals are influenced to hyper-differentiate themselves from the other gender in terms of
appearance and behaviour
• Perpetuated by mass media and advertising in pursuit of money
• Adolescents is the key period of this identity manipulation
• Film: Tough Guise
• There is a strong psychological difference in males vs. females due to this
o 20% of females have an eating disorder
▪ 4 out of 5 people view food as the enemy
o Males – implicit message of fear of gay or feminine ways
• Halloween costume video – moms don’t want their kids dressing in opposite sex costumes
• More wiggle room for females
1. Gender intensification ill prepares both men and women for the roles that they will later perform
2. Impossible standards leads to low-self esteem and high dissatisfaction
3. Emphasizes the dominant/submissive nature of the male/female relationship and perpetuates gender inequality.
• Equality is good, bu