Sociology 1020 – Demography Note
Demographics are all about counting human beings. There are four components to demography (we only look at three:
4. Morbidity (don’t look at this one – is about disease and sickness)
Fertilityis the incidence of childbearing in a country’s population.
Fecundity – the potential for childbearing
Crude Birth Rate – “The number of live births per 1000 in mid-year population.” As of 2001, this number was 11.27/1000.
• Called the “crude” birth rate because it takes in account for the whole population, including people who don’t have
kids (e.g., kids, males, elderly)
Differentials: reason for people to have kids or not to. Some are:
• Rural vs. urban (rural have more)
• Marriage (married people have more)
• Nativity (Canadian born or immigrant? Immigrants have more)
• Labour force participation rate of females
• Education and income (used to be that people with lower education and income had more kids, but the tables are
turning – Higher education and people who make over $150,000 a year are having more kids. They’re actually
having enough for replacement)
o According to money it costs $12,800 a year to raise a child to 18. This doesn’t account for extras, like
vacation, camp or college.
• Contraception (90% of females are on some sort of birth control)
Total Fertility Rate: (TFR) the number of children hat a hypothetical female would have over the course of her reproductive
life span. 1.59/woman.
Age Specific Fertility Rate – the number of births to women at specific ages divided by all the women of that age (/1000)
Age 20-24 25-29 30-34 40-44
1921 165.4 186.0 154.6 46.7
1980 100.1 129.4 69.3 3.1
2011 45.7 95.2 105.9 10.3
Mortality: the incidence of death in a population
Crude Death Rate: number of deaths in a given year for every thousand people in a population (7.0 deaths/1k). In 1867, the
number was 21/1000.
Infant Mortality Rate: number of deaths among infants under one year for each 1000 live births (4.7 deaths/1k live births).
This is the most important index of modernization – the lower it is, the more advanced a country is. In Canada, the number is
not as low as it could be because the first nations infant mortality rate is rather high (19/1000 live births)
Life Expectancy: average life span of a country’s population. Canada has the 12 highest life expectancy, with 81 years old.
For males the life expectancy is 78.89, and for females its 84.
Sanitation is a big factor in life expectancy and declining death rates!
Age Specific Death Rates is the number of deaths per thousand population in a particular age grouping.
• Up to 19 years: less than 1/1000 Sociology 1020 – Demography Note
• 70-74: 20.2/1000
• by 90 years: 195.3/1000
• Canadians = very mobile
• People aged 20-24 are more likely to move around due to education and jobs
• People who are university educated move the most
• There is no mobility difference between men and women
• High occupational status = move more
Migration: movement of people in and out of a specified territory
Immigration: movement into a territory
Emigration: movement out of a territory
Internal Migration: movement within borders
Net-migration rate: net result of immigration and emigration
Voluntary Migration: due to push and pull factors
Involuntary Migration: forced migration due to war or other social conflict
Canada’s growth rate is very, very low, around 0.78, while the world’s is
Sex Ratio: number of males for every 100 females. IT is important
because males who cant find partners are more disruptive. Females are
more likely to be aborted as fetuses.
• In Canada, the sex ratio is 98:100, which isn’t skewed.
Population Pyramids of Canada
• Age-sex distribution in society is represented by a population
• Men are always on the left, women on the right
• Ages usually run up the middle
• We can see a bulge – baby boomers
• Also see a bulge for echo boomers
• Births drop after echo boomers
• Starts to look like a pencil in modern societies
• Females always outlive the males, which we see at the top
• What creates an old population is fertilitiy (#1 factor)
• We don’t have it – need immigration
Mali Life Expectancy is 53
• Women are having 6 kids on average
• Only 20% of women can read
Sweden is a developed country
• Life expectancy: 81.5 years
• 99% can read and write
• Birth rate is 1.94
o Still below replacement, but higher than Canada Sociology 1020 – Demography Note
History of Population Growth
• People favoured large families for productivity
• World population passed 1 billion in 1800
• 7,297,436,530 and adding 80 million per year
• Grew exponentially (large growth in shorter and shorter periods of time)
• Largest populations in the world: China, India, USA
Malthusian Theory of Population Growth
• Warns of impending doom based on population growth predictions
o Population is going to exceed doom
• Population grows geometrically
• Food production is done in an arithmetic progression
o Uncontrollable desire to make babies
o Food is essential
o Inherent conflict between having kids and increasing food
• Positive Checks – war, famine, plagues, etc. which increase the death rate
• Preventative Checks – abstinence from sex, delaying marriage, birth control, and instituting policies limiting birth
• Malthus ignored many things that humans do that control population
• Neo-Malthusian approach (new approach): in the past people favored large families because labor was key. This
shifted as industrialization started and over time it became clear that children were a liability. We are using up our
planet’s resources, and through pollution its renewable resources like water. The more powerful technology has
improved our lives, but progress can lead to unexpected unforeseen problems: resources are finite.
• Jeffery Sachs – Neo-Malthusian and UN advisor on food scarcity and global security
o Says the demand for food is outpacing the growth of supplies based on climate change
o Argues that Malthus’s explanations may yet be realized
o It is not proved that we can sustain the planet for a long period with out limited resources
o To produce 1kg of meat protein requires 9kg of grain – but people want eat protein for energy and to help
fight off disease (vicious cycle)
o Rising global temperatures and glacier retreat, along with the overuse of water, but there is expanding
drought in other poorer parts of the word
o Countries like the USA spend ore on wars than agricultural producti