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Sociology 1020
Kim Luton

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Images of Society Chapter 2 The sociological Imagination MillsSociological imagination is required to understand how society operated at given point in time and massive changes society has undergone over past century or soshift to one perspective to anotherMicrosociology focus on interactions between individualsMacrosociology focus on organization and structure of societyLife of individual is imbedded within history of societyproblem societal changes are taking place faster than ability of people to comprehend and adapt to those changes future shock cultural lagsolution sociological imagination individuals no longer see themselves as apart from history and society but shaped by themConsists of ability to understand larger historical scenes in terms of its meaning for inner life and external career of variety of individuals Socialpsychological understanding of how social structure and changes in that structure affect psychology of individuals Graphs history and biography and theirs relationship between the 2 within societyMilieu communityBiography account of the series of events making up a persons lifeHistory the discipline that records and interprets past events involving human beingsMade by society and its historical push and shove1What is structure of this particular society as whole2Where does this society stand in human history3What varieties of men and women now prevail in this society and in this periodTrouble private matter values cherished by individual felt by him to be threatenedIssue public matterAll personal troubles can be a public issues depends on who it affectsEducation higher types of degrees being wanted society pressures and jobsTrapped with forms of communicationChapter 6 Tuskegee Syphilis ExperimentMeant to determine effects of syphilis by following poor black men infected with syphilis over several decades and by ensuring that these men did not receive treatments that were availableLead black Americans to believe that US governmentBlack professionals and institutions contributed to studys successForty years between 1932 and 1972 US Public Health Service PHS conducted experiment on 399 black men from poorest countries in Alabama who were never told what disease they had in the late stages their doctors had no intention of curing them of syphilis at allMen easy to manipulate because of their grossly disadvantaged lot in life true nature of experiment had to be kept secretreceived free medical careStudy meant to discover how syphilis affected blacks as opposed to whitestheory being that whites experienced more neurological complications whereas blacks were more susceptible to cardiovascular damageTo ensure that men would show up for painful and potentially dangerous spinal tap PHS doctors sent letter Last Chance for Special Free Treatment fact that autopsies would eventually be required was also concealedTuskegee Institute lent its affiliated hospitals to PHSBlack nurse Eunice Rivers unquestioning submission to authority eclipsed her moral judgmentExperiment continued in spite of Henderson Act 1943 public health law requiring testing and treatment for venereal disease and World Health Organizations Declaration of Helsinki 1964 informed consent needed for experiment involving human beingsLawyer Fred Gray made it seem like whites attacking blacksStudys justification for greater good of science and since men received some medication corrupted outcome of study of untreated syphilisChapter 7 Ethical Market in Human Organs Erin and HarrisNumber of organs needed for transplants exceeds number available from cadaversRisk lives by selling organ safeguards against wrongful exploitationIts clear that loss of life due in large measure to shortage of donor organs is a major crisis and a major scandalEveryone is paid but the donor just surgeons and medical terms are paidReasonably compensated for their risk time and altruism which would be undiminished by saleChapter 8 Is the Sale of Body Parts Wrong SavulescuExploitation murder and corruptionMarkets reduce altruistic donation and may also threaten the quality of organ supply and can exploit those who are forced by poverty to enter such a marketEthical market in organsPeople take risks for money and judge that benefits for their own lives or their familys outweigh the risksTwo issues need to ensure that risk involved is reasonable compared with benefits will offer to person undertaking the risk and society and people need to be fully informed and give consent freelySeems people have right to sell them when soldiers risk their livesheroes we should allow people to risk death or injury for their childrens lives or whatever they valueChapter 9 Body Ritual among the NaciremaIf behaviour is not found somewhere in the world he is apt to suspect that they must be present in some yet undescibed tribeHuman body is ugly and its natural tendency is to debility and diseaseAnthropologistsso familiar with diversity of ways in which different people behave in similar situations that he is not apt to be surprised by even most exotic customs If all of logically possible combinations of behaviour have not been found somewhere in the world he is apt to suspect that they must be present in some yet undescribed tribemagical beliefs and practices of Nacirema present such unusual aspects that it seems desirable to describe them as an example of the extremes to which human behaviour can goFundamental belief underlying whole system human body is ugly and natural tendency is to debility and disease Incarcerated in such a body mans only hope is to avert these characteristics though use of ritual and ceremonyevery household has one or more shrines More powerful individuals in society have several shrines in their house and opulence of house referred to in number of ritual centres it possesses Most houseswattle and daub construction but shrine rooms of wealthy walled with stone Poorer families imitate rich by applying pottery plaques to shrine wallsChest in shrine has charms and magical potions without which no native believes he could live charm goes in charm box once used box is usually overflowing so people forget their purposes and fear to use them againHoly mouthmen mouthrite to arrest decay and draw friendssadismMedicine men have latipso imposing temple to treat the very sick but you need to give rich giftDeath does not decrease their faith in the medicine menListener witchdoctor with power to exorcise devils that lodge in heads of people who have been bewitched children are bewitched by parents mainly motherNaciremamagicridden people exotic customs take on real meaningChapter 10 Mother Cow HarrisAgriculture part of vast system of human and natural relationships To judge isolated portions of this ecosystem in terms that are relevant to conduct of American agribusiness leads to strange impressions Cattle figure in Indian ecosystem easily overlooked or demeaned by observers from industrialized highenergy societies USchemicals have almost completely replaced animal manure as principal source of farm fertilizerfarmers stopped using manure when they began to plough with tractors rather than mules or horses Tractors excrete poison rather than fertilizercommitment to largescale machine farming is of necessity a commitment to use chemical fertilizers Worldwide today has grown up a vast integrated petrochemicaltractortruck industrial complex that produces farm machinery motorized transport oil and gasoline and chemical fertilizers and pesticides upon which new highyield production techniques dependThe cow to Hindus is mother of life in India spiritual values more precious than life itselfKeeps 100 million useless animals alivecontribute neither milk nor meatIndias Zebu cows give no milk milk improves health of those starvingProduct of natural selection as small bodies and fantastic recuperative powers of zebu breedstaboo on slaughter and beef eating During droughts and famines farmers are severely tempted to killsell their livestockThose who do seal their doom even if they survive the drought they are unable to plough fields when rain comesMassive cattle slaughter under duress of famine constitutes much greater threat to aggregate welfare than error by farmers concerning usefulness of their animals during normal times cow slaughter has roots in excruciating contradiction between immediate needs and longrun conditions of survivalCow love sacred symbols and holy doctrines protects farmer against calculations that are rational only in short term Cow dungfertilizer remainer burned to provide heat for cooking burns clean and slow household flooring material keeps dust down and can be sweptTo Western experts Indian farmers rather starve to death than eat his cow inscrutable Oriental mind and life is not so dear to Asian massesDont realize that farmer would rather eat his own cow than starve but that he will starve if he does eat itChapter 11 Modern magicCase of Examinations AlbasWWI Malinowski studied use of magic among Trobriand Islanders in South PacificMagic action directed toward achievement of particular outcome with no logical relationships between action and outcome or indeed any empirical evidence that one produces the otherBring good luck rather than to ward off bad luckJewelleryparent was bright and successful implying faith in magic by contagion security blanket unlucky tabooed items had failed the owner before behaviour required of others by studentStudents dont use magic while writing examsMetholodological process involved triangulation data of different kinds were collected from variety of sources in such a way that weaknesses of one datacollecting technique were compensated for by strengths of another thus better ensuring reliability and validity 4 sources employed were 1Exams logs2Surveys3Observation and probing for meaning4Student accounts to explain failuresSociety from preliterate to contemporary increasing in complexity and scientific sophistication magic to be transformed from1Being publically performed to being privately and individually performed2Being culturally transmitted to being spontaneously generated3Being completely shared by whole community to being utilized privately by individuals4Being unvaryingly uniform and consistent in its rituals to being highly variable and even contradictory With an idealtype polar construct of this kind no actual case of magic including student magic will in all respects conform to the characteristics of either pole Students magic falls towards latter end of each of four continua
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