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Summaries of IOS (Term 2).docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
Sociology 1020
Professor
Kim Luton
Semester
Winter

Description
Images of Society Notes – Term Two Chapter 15 – Changing Families Author : Roderic Beaujot - both sexes are getting married later in life (versus 70s) often due to education or work - average duration of marriage has decreased - decline in religious homogamy - men are consistently older than women o consequently, male are more established and tend to earn more money - Goldscheider and Waite’s “propensities to marriage” : influence of long-term employment on willingness to marriage (plus for men, negative for women – “buy out” of marriage) o increased propensity to put off marriage until both are economically stable (Sweeney) - separation and divorce rates have increased since the 1960s, but most common situation is still for people to be married only once - marriages are possibly becoming more selective, with more cohabitation and less actual marriage - increased risk of children divorcing in later years if parents divorced or have higher levels of education o but presence of own children reduces rates (without kids there are weaker bonds between parents) - decrease in instrumental functions fulfilled by families results in less holding them together o less economic interdependence, wife can leave dual-income families easier o least likely to happen, however, when children are young (most interdependent stage) - divorce represents a natural solution to marriages that don’t provide mutual gratification (expressive function), problems such as abuse, unfaithfulness, or lack of love and respect - probability for divorce is higher for those who marry young o instrumental : less economic stability, less mobile during pregnancy which results in an inability to further education, - divorce is becoming more widely accepted in society (grounds expanded in 1968) - propensity to remarry has declined (1991 : 64% men and 52% women) o often associated with economic prosperity from independence - decrease in overall rate of relationship involvement (15% for women and 18% for men) o young people put off living together, common-law relationships end more frequently than marriages, current marriages break up sooner than those of previous generations, and tendency to remarry is declining - co-residence of elderly people with their families have declined Chapter 17 – Experimental Family Organization: An Historico-Cultural Report on the Oneida Community Author : William M. Kephart - founded in 1848 by John Humphrey Noyes in New York State - community of hundreds of people living in one communal home called the Mansion House and functioning as one large family in both social and sexual (although non-conventionally) ways - women wore knee-length skirts with loose pants underneath and had bobbed haircuts (VERY different) - children were raised with a “we” not “I” mentality - men were to approach council if intercourse was desired with a woman, she was intern approached by council and could confirm or deny the request (although denial was rare) - impregnating the woman was not allowed (coitus reservatus, or not coming, was practiced) - elite group was founded that was allowed to reproduce, and within ten years 58 children were born o ensured group was chosen carefully and economic provisions were established - when born, children were allowed to be under the control of their mother for 15 months, and was then given to the community and not permitted to see the mother “in that way” afterwards o this is not to say that children were not nurtured and showed affection – interviews state otherwise - no members of the community have spoken poorly of their times - thirteen original children are still alive today (1993) Chapter 19 – If Men Could Menstruate Author : Gloria Steinem - we would think quite differently about menstruation if it were associated with the dominant group (men) rather than the subordinate group (women) - influence of gender norms on societal views and consequential personal views Chapter 20 – The National Conversation in the Wake of Littleton Is Missing the Mark Author : Jackson Katz and Sut Jhally - idea of the importance of gender specification; shootings in Littleton are blamed on bullying and marginalization, but what many fail to notice is the trend of violent males (vs. females) - problem = what defines a man? power, strength, muscle, authority o movies and actors o sports o mass media - the two shooters were not “manly”, but they had access to a great equalizer; guns - if the shooters were girls, everyone would see that as the dominant variable, but because it’s boys we talk about the crime in a gender neutral way, and find other reasons to accredit their behavior to o why are girls that are growing up in the same environment as the boys to developing into violent people? because they’re not expected to, it’s the unfortunate role of a male in today’s society Chapter 21 – Fraternities and the Collegiate Rape Culture: Why Are Some Fraternities More Dangerous Places for Women? Author : A. Ayers Boswell and Joan Z. Spade - existence of high-risk and low-risk fraternities in the community, gender relations and attitudes toward sexual relations vary between the two o low-risk frats tended to have less loud music and thus more of an ability to interact, and subsequently lower levels of rape (women of whom the brothers do not know are at a higher risk for rape, rather than sisters or friends, “faceless”) o high-risk frats discourage committed relationships and routinely degrade women, whereas many brothers in low-risk frats were in relationships and thus interacted kindly with women - alcohol consumption at all fraternities intensified attitudes and orientations of rape culture - men (brothers) control alcohol = control party = control rape culture Chapter 25 – On Being Sane in Insane Places Author : David L. Rosenhan - eight sane pseudopatients admitted themselves into mental hospitals and claimed symptoms typical of paranoia or schizophrenia - once taken into the care of the hospital staff all pseudopatients ceased any abnormal activity and proceeded to note how they were treated by the staff and other patients now that they were labeled as “insane” o all findings were written on notepads that were first kept secret, but were then found to be of little interest to staff and fellow patients, and were thus recorded in plain sight - little things such as questions asked or personal eating habits were taken as symptoms of insanity by the staff, despite the fact that they were all natural sane habits, or public “shows” of sanity o this does not represent the quality of the nurses or doctors, but rather the sociological and societal tendency to maintain a label once given (stickiness) o physicians operate with a strong bias toward a type 2 error (call a healthy person sick, rather than calling a sick person healthy – safe bet) o experiment concluded that if stakes were higher, sane people would be less likely to be labeled as insane - when released (as all eventually were) they were given the infinite label of “in remission” o some patients began to believe that maybe they were actually insane (self-fulfilling prophecy) and that maintaining this label only
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