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Sociology 1020/1021E- Luton

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Sociology 1020
Kim Luton

Gender Relations SEX  biological category based on physiological & anatomical difference  ascribed status— born with; result of cell formation  we dichotomize sex when it runs along a continuum o M F  sex is natural but biologically determined  1-3% babies born ―intersexed‖— not directly clear from external genitals if male or female o over 90% surgically reassigned as females  being male or female, in society‘s mind, is biologically determined o males/females should act a certain way  gender is a social category but culturally defined: what is appropriate masculine or feminine behavior Sex Codes: Premarital Sex Standards 1. abstinence standard— forbid  old 2. double standard— only men  old  28% forbid for women 3. love standard— depends  love and respect: present now  22% societies  4% mildly disapprove 4. fun standard— permit  for pleasure, as long as both are consenting  40% societies  regulate sexual behavior outside of marriage  Risman: C change— massive change in last generation  do we disrespect those who have too much casual sex? 1. Egalitarian Conservatives  lose equal respect for men and women 2. Egalitarian Libertarians  do not lose respect for either gender 3. Traditional Double Standards  lose respect for women but not men 4. Reverse Double Standard  lose respect for men not women  mostly sorority women GENDER  a social category  set of social attitudes that can vary form culture to culture and over time within a society  gender norms: rules specifying appropriate behavior for each gender- ‗gender scripts‘  we determine what is normal by defying the norms  gendered DOL: acting ―gender appropriately‖ in both unpaid and paid labor arenas  men— more demanding jobs, women— more housework Becoming Our Gender  process of internalizing genders  gender socialization about performing gender; anyone can perform any gender  gender identity: self perception as male or female  based on social expectations for individuals: achieved status— learned, established at 18 months – 3 years old  master status— main attribute through which all other behaviors are based  Hughes: powerful aspect of self-concept which develops in accordance with the individual‘s gender and the social definitions of that gender within the larger gendered order  a set of structural relations through which people are treated differently because of their gender  direct how males and females should act  a structured force determining masculine/feminine behaviors within a given society o mostly patriarchy: system of dominance in which cultural, political and economic structures have been created by men and are maintained for the benefit of men  traits associated with men more valued than traits associated with women  how patriarchy dominates is culturally specific  macro-level  there is always a gendered order and a performed gender Gender Intensification  process by which people are forced to hyper-differentiate their own gender (ie. appearance and behavior)  perpetuated by mass media and advertising in pursuit of money  adolescence is key period of this identity manipulation  ―Tough Guise‖ film, Jackson Katz  Wizard of Oz, revealing masculinity (lack of)  mask, threat of violence  only show what is identified as manly o learned from media, family, community o construct cultural violence as a norm  violence often cynical  male violence on males  sometimes a survival mechanism  damages psyche  always focus on subordinate groups  men create the images of social norms for men  dominance functions by not being talked about, unexamined Effects of Gender Intensification  ill prepares men and women for roles they will later perform  impossible standards  low self-esteem & high dissatisfaction  emphasizes the dominant/submissive nature of the relationship between men and women  perpetuates gender inequality  brings about potential hazards: locks men in, denies female‘s agency Gender Stereotypes  stereotype: occurs when people believe others possess certain characteristics simply as a result of being a member of a particular group  gender stereotype: attributing certain characteristics to others simply on the basis of their gender  treated a certain way due to perceived stereotypes  men and women are ―inherently different‖ in aspirations  there are more similarities than differences between man and woman  most human characteristics fall into a normal distribution  eg. men made to go out and play more as children, explains spatial acuity superiority? GENDER DIFFERENCES 1. gender schemas shape the way we notice, interpret, and remember info according to our expectations about genders  reinterpret contradictions to be exceptions 2. social roles for males and females enhance or suppress different capabilities 3. differential gender socialization leads men and women to develop different skills and attitudes  leads to different behaviors: differences in behavior seem to confirm appropriateness of different roles: naturalization of biology  schema: mental construct, framework  helps us organize information The Bell Curve  social variables affect gender gaps  men live longer than women when preventable deaths are factored out  highest math score: men, lowest math score: women  much more variety within math scores of man and woman than differences between man and woman  perhaps to do with latent consequences of socialization  even when gender differences exist between males and females, portion of overlapping bell curves > portion distinctive to either gender Gender Stratification  social status and social roles that men and women occupy in society  gender stereotypes lead to social attitudes about ―correct‖ gender roles for men and women  different statuses  place in society largely based on the value we place on the role in DOL, ie. due to our socioeconomic status  always have people who resist Body Image  weight is the largest factor in determining satisfaction in appearance  ―cult of thinness‖  men want to gain weight, women want to lose  due to media  fashion magazines source for body image dissatisfaction  blaming media takes away agency of women and men  objectification is a deeper problem  both men and women become ―invisible‖ as they get older  more importance placed on women‘s appearance than men‘s Wage Gap  Nov 9, 2009: women out working more than men (1 time) st  men lost jobs in great numbers from 2008 recession  28% women, 11% men part-time: structured choice  socialized into ―mall jobs‖  female occupational ghettos remain  women receive 58% of university degrees  still do unpaid work at home Reasons for Wage Gap 1. Human Capital factors: education, experience, tenure, field of study  men study sciences and engineering  women study health and education 2. Demographic factors: marital status & children  men: ↑ when married & have children  women: ↓ when married & have children 3. Job Characteristics: occupational segregation, industries, type of work, size of establishment discrimination: 38% due to none of above factors 4. Feminization of Poverty: 1/3 Canadian women will be poor sometime in life  women more likely to be poor at some point in life  convergence of wage gaps due to lowering of male salaries  women expect lower entry salaries than men Work  women work ―second shift‖: paid & unpaid double ghetto: combination of working paid (pink ghetto— overrepresented) labor and unpaid labor (domestic ghetto) low experience seniority Violence  abuse is an equal-opportunity problem  women more violent in heterosexual dating relationships  women more likely to experience sexism in the workplace  watch out for spuriousness when correlating two events, eg. porn and violence  victimization of women— men are more often victims of homicide Convergence  gender gap closing in pay, tenure, household responsibilities  removing gender imbalances may not be a priority in many aspects  can occur via:  women catching up to men o changing patterns of marriage— women work, men share household responsibilities  men catching up to women o becoming aesthetically driven— makeup, surgery  mortality rates of women rising, of men dropping o more women driving longer distances, men taking less risks  decreasing rates of men and women— moving to countries with lower labor costs  gender consciousness improved most for elites THEORIES Structural Functionalism  gender differences create complementary roles: family unit  gendered practices (eg. DOL) promote social stability: female vulnerability need protecting for reproduction, thus:  women do private realm (@ home and in the kitchen) and expressive tasks (nurture children)  men do public realm (paid labor) and instrumental tasks  biological factors dictate what we should be doing  public realm valued higher than private because public is generally dependent on public  16% of families are lone parent, in which many women have a double shift and men are caregivers Symbolic Interactionism  gender is constructed and changeable  gendered DOL not a natural outcome of need to reproduce  definitions of masculinity and femininity, gender roles and gender norms are all negotiable  Brown & Gilligan: children learn gendered behavior through imitation  homosexuality challenged hetero assumption  men more likely to:  change topics of convo  ignore topics chosen by women  minimize ideas of women  interrupt women  learned gender of behavior  appropriate gender norms: when expectations aren‘t met  severe sanctions  men women  androgyny Conflict/Marxist  focus on social inequality  Engels: likened woman‘s position in family to oppressed working class in society: both viewed as property  superior male attacks weaker  accumulate resources  lowers women‘s rights  women become property  DOL results from male control over female resources  primitive communism: hunting & gathering  egalitarian o women essential because there were only 50 ppl/group  social division: age and gender  modern socialists: industrialization resulted in greater gender inequality than earlier economic systems  continues inequality  Victorian culture worsened division— cult of domesticity  women are property of father, husband or brother o serve this male  double jeopardy: discrimination men experience due to gender and race  multiple jeopardy: gender, ethnicity, class, age, physical ability, religion  men and women differently tied to economic system  good to pay women less  only bring in women when necessary  lumpen proletariat: reserve army of labor Feminism  all founded on patriarchy  advocacy of social equality for men and women, in opposition to patriarchy and sexism  views the personal experiences of women and men through eyes of gender  opposition to feminism directed primarily at radical forms  gender inequality embedded in institutions  produce systemic pattern of discrimination  gender is interconnected: class, race, sexual orientation, religion…  global/trans: global power, geography, history of women  pay attention to these patterns How Can Women be an Oppressed Majority? 1. experience unequal treatment 2. distinguishing gender factors/characteristics 3. placed in subordinate group involuntarily 4. subordinate status within institution of marriage  Canada: 23 rdcountry embrace but do not practice diversity Status of Women Worldwide  gender disparities exist in access to education & work opportunities, and in health, personal security and leisure time:  feminization of poverty has become a global phenomenon  fewer girls attend schools than boys in developing worlds  women work in occupations with lower status and pay than men  disproportionate number of women and girls infected by HIV/AIDS  female education improves standards: benefits everyone (except men)? Radical Feminism  equality can only be achieved through abolishing power of men  via biological reproduction and paid labor— suggests in vitro fertilization Maternal Feminism  real strength is to bear babies  women hold power in child-bearing Liberal Feminism  rid inequality by adding social equality  right to vote, go to work  gender inequality = main problem in society Social Feminism (Marxist)  inequality embedded in society— due to capitalism  not male vs. female… power vs. subordinate  end to capitalism = end to patriarchy  Johnson: patriarchy is sustained by men‘s fear of other men  men try to control coworkers (ie. become boss), therefore spending less time controlling families Family 1/16/2013 1:11:00 PM FAMILY  social institution that unites people in cooperative groups to oversee the bearing and raising of children  kinship: a social bond based on blood, marriage, or adoption  family unit: 2+ kin who reside together  50 years ago: male, female, 3 children Basic Concepts  nuclear: one or two parents, unmarried children → Standard North American Family (SNAF) (31.9%)  rose with industrialization: people move to where jobs were (lower birth rate = easier to locate)  conjugal families: relation based on marriage  extended: all generations of a family under one household (2%)  ie. First Nations, immigrants  endogamy: marriage and approved mating arrangements in each society  same social category: prescriptive norm  exogamy: marriage between non-preapproved people  difference social category: proscriptive norm  propinquity: spatial proximity  homogamy: people marry people with like characteristic  ie. religion, ethnicity, education  personal choice guided by social forces  ~60% of marriages  heterogamy: marry with dissimilar characteristics  ie. religion, ethnicity, social class, personality, age Family Types, Canada 2006  couple families  married couples (68.6%)  common law: fastest growing family type in Canada (15.5%)  lone parent families mostly female (80%)  same-sex couples (0.6%)  mixed unions/step families (3.2%)  infertility: a year of trying to no avail  #1 cause: STI  cohabitation: sharing of household between unmarried couples  higher in Canada due to religious stigmas in USA Mixed Unions in Canada  in 2001, 2.8% marriages between a visible minority person and a non visible minority person  young more likely than older adults  people in mixed unions likely to have higher education  in 2001, 19% marriages between interreligious couples  young and highly educated more likely  between Catholics and Protestants Consanguine vs. Nuclear  societies valuing consanguine:  relatives provide economic security, attend family ceremonies, are valued political allies  marriage and reproduction at a premium  marriage increases number of alliances with other kin groups  marriages arranged by parents  children expected to provide services to parents at a young age and throughout their lives  societies valuing spousal bond:  spouses choose each other  likely to spoil children Family Change  first transition (1870-1950): smaller families  change in economic costs and benefits of children  new cultural environment  child quantity  child quality  second transition (1960-present) in Western countries:  60-70: end of marrying at young age, ↑divorces  70-85: ↑ common-law unions, children cohabiting unions  85-present: level divorce rate, ↑ post-marital cohabitation, ↓ in marriage, plateau in fertility, ↑ births after 30 years old  fewer children, more not living with both biological parents  1950: ―golden age of family‖  childless couples = selfish  single people = deviants  working mothers = harming children  pregnancy out of wedlock = marry or give up baby Theoretical Perspectives on Family Change  macro level:  industrialization and modernization brought structural differentiation (separate structures serving specific functions) o family lost its roles in economic production, education, social security  families have become weaker institutions: less power, less cohesion, less influence, fewer functions  deinstitutionalized  micro level:  family a source of emotional gratification, affective involvement, personal identity  abandon family ties if this is not fulfilled  70s-80s: more interest in living up to personal standards  divorce ↑  Durkheim: family relations changed from DOL  mechanical solidarity  Kettle: ―dutiful generation‖  ―me generation‖ after baby boom  affective individualism  Giddens: ―pure relationships‖, ―reproductive individualism‖— relationships based on personal choice (companionship model of marriage)  families quicker to part when individual members do not find particular arrangements to be gratifying DESCENT  descent: the kinship between generations  bilateral: descent traced through both mother and father  modern industrialized societies (usually greater equality)  unilateral: descent usually through either mother or father  patrilineal: traced through father  matrilineal: traced through mother Inheritance  families joined across generations by passing on of property  can perpetuate inequality between wealthy and poor  can be interrupted during revolutionary change RESIDENTIAL PATTERNS  patrilocality: married couple live with or near husband‘s family  matrilocality: live near wife‘s family  neolocality: live alone Cohabitation  cohabiting couples more similar to single than married couples  becoming an alternative to marriage  stages in societies; changes over time: 1. strengthening relationship 2. conjugal family, no kids 3. extramarital kids acceptable 4. alternative to marriage  Quebec between 3 rd& 4 thstage, rest of Canada between 2 nd & 3rd  likelihood of separation 66% higher in marriages following cohabitation, not including Quebec MARRIAGES & ARRANGEMENTS  marriage: a legally sanctioned relationship, usually involving economic cooperation as well as sexual activity and childbearing  involves: 1. Commitment  explicit contract spelling out rights and obligations between partners  personal level: marriage undertaken with considerable seriousness  social level: certain customs and laws govern entering or leaving a marriage 2. Ongoing Exchange o responsibilities and obligations involved o expressive exchanges: emotional dimension of marriage  interdependence— intimacy of thought o instrumental exchanges: task oriented dimensions  taking care of each other  practical aspects: food, shelter, resources  cycle of exchange: a. women marry men for resources b. men benefit from women‘s care and love c. work together to benefit mutually  marriages are sustained if the pair sees some equity in the exchanges so that each find the marriage to be rewarding  societies place a high premium on marriage, for reproduction and socialization of young  adults motivated to live an enduring relationship  newborns a state of union  people motivated to get married  mating gradient: older person more likely to be responsible, greater socioeconomic status  employment is a prerequisite for marriage  later marriage associated with higher socioeconomic status Dating  provides relevant experiences  boys train girls to see sex as part of a relationship  girls train boys to see love and commitment as part of a relationship  Waller: bargain to get the best deal out of the relationship  principle of least interest: less involved = more power Marriage Patterns  monogamy: one person to another  only type legally sanctioned in Canada  most actual marriages are monogamous due to financial reasons  polygamy: marriage uniting 3+ people  legal in most societies in the world  most common in the world  polygyny: 2+ women, 1 man o older, established men with younger women  polyandry: 2+ men, 1 woman o rare— typically involves brothers sharing a wife to prevent land from being divided  enables inheritance to stay within male line  group marriage: rital husband, various sexual partners  very rare  institutional convergence: marriage pattern around world becoming monogamous  cannot afford to be any other way Marriage Rates in Canada  decreasing  huge jump in 1951 due to baby boom Marital Interactions  Becker: collaborative families = inefficient; cultural factors promote traditional DOL  dangerous in unstable marriages  complementary-roles model: husband = paid work, woman = unpaid work  double burden: wife does same amount of paid work as husband yet more unpaid work, or vice versa  collaborative/role-sharing model: same amount of paid/unpaid work SEX CODES  Murdock found that the majority of societies tolerate premarital intercourse  extramarital coitus more prohibited than premarital coitus  many consider adultery acceptable as long is it remains a secret  cheaters generally doomed to fail  factor in uxoricide (man killing wife)  incest taboo restricts sexual activity, preventing sexual rivalry from breaking up family  requirement to marry outside nuclear family enlarges kinship network through alliances with other families  more permissive when woman have greater equality  less necessary to exchange sex for marriage TRANSITIONS & PROBLEMS  many young people stay at home (44% of 20-29 year olds)  others return due to education or economics  boomerang generation: 24% in late 20s  cluttered nest: children leaving home later  younger generations stay longer in school  children less likely to live at home when parents are more religious, remarried, or from certain ethnic groups Divorce  silver separators: parents  higher probability with early marriage  higher incidence for re-married  occurs because exchanges are unrewarding  80% of divorced remarry  duration of marriage shorter due to longer lives and personal instability of marital relationship itself  higher men‘s income reduces divorce  lower income = instrumental exchanges less rewarding  higher women‘s income means higher divorce prospects  high income = independence from man  childless/empty nest couples have higher risks of divorce  more prevalent now; natural solution to marriages that do not serve the mutual gratification of people involved  spouses expect more intimacy and interpersonal affect  families expected to serve individual needs rather than individuals serving family needs  many people regret their divorce  issues often extramarital CHILDBEARING & CHILDREN  economic/instrumental: expensive  non-economic/expressive: emotional/psychological burdens, takes up energy, sense of achievement, continuity beyond death, socio-emotional support  90% of young people plan to have children  Rossi: ―inexperienced parents‖— 4 factors 1. little anticipatory socialization 2. limited training during pregnancy 3. transition to adulthood abrupt 4. society lacks guidelines PARENTING STYLES In North America  independence should be most promoted  parental responsiveness (love, warmth, nuturance)  parental demandingness (discipline, control)— extent to which a parent expects and demands age-appropriate behavior from a given child 1. Indulgent o lenient, low requirements o avoid confrontation 2. Authoritative o supportive, not punitive o monitor and impart clear standards o assertive, not intrusive/restrictive 3. Authoritarian o obedience & order directed 4. Neglectful o rejecting, neglect In Other Cultures  authoritative rare  children obey without question or explanation  parents more revered— greater inherent authority  traditional parenting; closest to authoritative  warm, responsive parents  expect compliance by virtue of cultural beliefs LONE PARENT FAMILIES  58% due to separation or divorce  20% never married  females more likely if: common law marriage, children early, less education  double disadvantage: limited earning power and low level of child support  responsibility overload, task overload, emotional overload  reduced stability for children: live through diversity of family trajectories— cohabitation, extramarital births, divorce, family reconstitution  greater resources to care for children via:  smaller family sizes  later ages at parenthood  greater proportions of two-family incomes  negative consequences:  Coleman: financial, human and social capital deficiencies  fewer adults to learn from  fewer relationships to family members beyond household and in community THEORIES Structural Functionalism  family performs several vital tasks: 1. socialization 2. regulation of sexual activity o saves time looking for sex 3. social placement o knowing expectations and norms 4. material and emotional security  society depends on families Social-Conflict  family perpetuates social inequality: o property and inheritance  keeps class system as-is, generation to generation o patriarchy  first learned in family o racial and ethnic inequality  prescriptive norms: endogamy  family plays a role in social stratification Symbolic Interactionists  explores how individuals shape and experience family life  family living offers an opportunity for intimacy  family members share activities and build emotional bonds  courtship and marriage may be seen as forms of negotiation  looks at everyday level; doesn‘t look at how structures impact Feminism  family = perpetrator of gender roles  rethink notion that families in which no adult male is present are automatically a cause for concern  better lone parent sans conflict than conflictual heteronormative family FUTURE CHANGE & CONTINUITY  marriage not likely to go out of style  66% persons married experience a lifelong relationship  biggest change: liberation of gender roles and an unlinking of gender & caring  women work and men care for children more  2-3% of births result from New Reproductive Technologies (NRT) Intimate Partner Violence 1/16/2013 1:11:00 PM  violence is often modeled DOMESTIC VIOLENCE  any use of physical or sexual force, actual or threatened, including emotional/psychological abuse or harassing behavior  men or women may be abused  usually men beating women  women more likely to report and sustain (bad wounds)  most common in relationships when one wants to conclude the relationship  level of coping lowers after the impact and a disequilibrium response occurs— angle of disorientation  can be reasserted when an intervention occurs during the window of opportunity (24 hours after the impact)  always gets worse without intervention THE CYCLE  domestic violence tends to have a cyclical violence  most abusees experience assault over and over again  makes domestic violence critically different from other forms of abuse  cycle of violence may vary in length 3 distinct phases to the domestic assault cycle: 1. Tension-Building Phase  psychological abuse  victim— powerless, fearful  victim tries to pacify partner and avert a violent incident  blames self for not preventing assault  assaulter blames victim for provoking assault 2. Battering Phase (police called)  few minutes to several days  visible injuries or none at all (all about control)  sometimes an argument precedes assault  some attacks while sleeping or eating  victim often immobilized by fear or shock  may include sexual assault  assaulters may show remorse and kindness to hold onto victim 3. Manipulation Phase, ―Honeymoon‖  assaulters may show remorse and kindness to hold onto victim  assaulters blame abuse on external pressures or victim  victim pressured for forgiveness, reassured by false promises  victim made to feel guilty  often phased out over time or nonexistent VICTIM PROFILE  found in all socio-economic, racial, cultural, educational, age, religious groups  fearful  minimizes abuse  isolated  feels helplessness  internalizes: blames self, feels guilty  ambivalent  believes in traditional female roles  low self-esteem  hopes for change but is trapped by cycle of violence  lacks resources  may have depended children  emotionally dependent  loves spouse; feels loyalty OFFENDER PROFILE  found in all socio-economic, racial, cultural, educational, age, religious groups  victims of abuse as children or have witnessed abuse in their homes  self-imposed emotional isolation/lack of trust in environment and others  externalization of problems— blames wife, drugs, alcohol, stress, finances  control or dominance in life— isolates and controls wife  denial: most assaulters believe they do not have a problem  anger: poor impulse control— most emotions expressed as anger  dependency fears  excessive jealousy  very insecure— low self-esteem  Jekyll & Hyde personality Media 1/16/2013 1:11:00 PM Information Society  Bell: media created a new society called information society— machines move us to a new stage of civilization  driving force: advance in scientific knowledge  systematically organized to create wealth-producing technology  a time to escape poverty and class division of industrial society  technological determinism: new tools and machines, ie. media, drives social change  changes:  shift from manufacturing economy to service economy  manual jobs to technical work  capacity to forecast social change  computerized systems  pros:  ↑ prosperity  ↓ manual labor  broader dissemination of knowledge  more democratic and participatory society  new technologies allow people to be both producers and consumers of info Political Economy of Media  basic concern: relationship between mass media and distribution of power in society  public sphere— circulating info without government interference— is a central element in liberal democracy  states (like the Soviet Union under Stalin) use media to transmit propaganda to citizens and gather info through surveillance  info revolution to bring about technologies of freedom: simple, decentralized means of communication  empower citizens and make control of media difficult to maintain  Marxists: communication systems are not free  due to capitalism; means of production organized to make a profit  culture industry: made of TV, newspapers, film, radio, etc.  high concentration of ownership: handful of dominant corporations control > 50% of market  general finding: media functions to preserve the interests of privileged groups in society  capitalist owners favor entertainment to keep people buying and distractions from social criticism  media is deceptive— ―corporate-speak‖, hides issues of labor exploitation, social justice, ecological destruction  digital revolution has increased scope of self-expression  general conglomerate vs. communications conglomerate  general: interests in communications matched by or exceeded by involvement in other industries  communications: tries to control as much media as possible  transnational: based in one country and operate in many Audience  hypodermic model: media ―injects‖ audiences with messages that make them act a certain way  difficult to isolate effects of media from other social influences  cultural studies school: investigates popular culture where cultural codes and agendas are in conflict  meaning taken from info depends on class and ethnic position  active audience theory: people respond and interpret media differently  con: loses sight of macro focus GENDER & THE MEDIA  media plays a role in gender socialization  feminists argue:  men have general access to most influential medium  films constructed for pleasure of males  media started targeting women as they did most of the shopping (using advertising)  soap operas structured to fit housewife work: during break-time and allowing for distracted viewing  women did distinguish fantasy from reality and often related to female villains  men watch TV uninterrupted whereas women often keep themselves occupied with other tasks  men see home is a site of leisure, women see it as work  Kilbourne: new ads focus on ―positive‖ images of confident female sexuality yet have a deeply destructive effect on women‘s well-being  encourages females to be sex objects at a young age  promotes health disorders VIOLENCE  media violence may promote real life violence under the right circumstances… or it may be an outlet— surrogate theory  violence has always been a part of our society— now coming to terms with our ―dark side‖  possible sources of violence: poverty, drugs, family disintegration, availability of guns, etc.  Grossman: train soldiers by exposure to simulations of violence  Bobo doll experiment  exposure to media violence can lead to desensitization— less sensitive to real violence— or disinhibition— incline subjects to shed barriers toward physical expression of aggressive feelings  fast action may be the source of violence  violence probably dependent on culture and context  cultivation effect: TV systematically cultivates certain perceptions of the real world  Gerbner: divided viewers into heavy, average and light viewers of TV: heavy viewers had mainstream world views— perceive world negatively  people recreate the world as they view it GLOBALIZATION  advances in technology allow media to integrate everyone economically, politically, culturally  media resources concentrated in developed world  information imbalance: some people have more capacity to produce and distribute info than others o Hamelink o cultural imperialism: developing nations dominated by Western culture o ads promote Western consumer goods and political systems o active and passive audiences react differently to this o hybridization: two-way media stream between West and rest of world o both ―Hollywood products‖ and exotic cultural items popular o global commercial order forces cultural productions to seek profit; no longer for cultural expression o Barber: ―Jihad vs. McWorld‖— religious/ethnic movements vs. global consumer capitalism o mediascape to be dominated by contradictory global and local identities CYBERSPACE  cyberspace: electronic impulses stored in computer memories, transmitted through fibre-optic cables and satellite links o term coined by Gibson o started as a communication system for US Department of Defense o virtual community (Rheingold): the attempt to reverse isolation of modern society o advantages: connect on basis of interests, lack of judgments, freedom of expression o disadvantages: deception, misinterpretation, loss of responsibility o more time spent in front of computer = less time spent in face-to-face communication o lonely and depressed people more attracted to internet o virtual commerce: businesses connect to more customers THEORIES Conflict Theorist  controls resonation of issues  promotes consumption— support economic institution  narcotizing effect  provides massive amounts of coverage: audience desensitized  fail to act on information  gate-keeping: small number of people control larger number of people  internet = freest form of communication  political economy:  relationship with mass media & distribution of power in a society = basic concern  general finding: media functions to preserve interests of elite Symbolic Interactionist  source of daily interaction— primary group: one you know informally, face to face, holistically  about developing a network of friends Feminist  traditional gender misrepresented  women underrepresented in media  cases emphasized are traditional relationships with men  emphasizes connection of sex with violence against women Structural Functionalist  maintains status MEDIA ALERT  Glassner: studied internet predators and date rape  alert parents of threat to sexual abuse  pedophiles exist, online sometimes  chatrooms provide people with like-interests  pro: cathartic (decrease drive)  con: over time, boredom ensues (increase drive) Myth vs. Reality o children in poor families most at risk of being abused by an adult o most are abused by a family member inside the home who then distributes images of their children How Media Protects Children o focus on common pattern: poverty and child abuse o appearance of concern o focus on catholic priests and gay males o emphasizing non-family members o studies indicate children 100x more likely to be abused by hetero partner of a family member o by focusing on atypical types of child abuse, media diverts attention from reality of structural arrangements Rape o rohypnol (roofies): prescription sleeping drug o GHB— easy lay o ketamine— kit kat o of 1,033 cases in a hospital, research showed that… o 1/3 had nothing in urine o 2/3 had alcohol o 0.5% of all cases had roofies o media devotes attention to rare occurrings because they provide a way to seem to mater o keeps us from thinking about our society deeply o most rapes by men victims know o most rapists are ―normal‖ males o 60% of college-aged men would rape if they could not be caught o Katz— cultural emphasis: due to ―aggressive heterosexuality‖ o cannot blame individual members: due to a patriarchal society Noam Chomsky and Edward Hermann  conflict theorists  economic elites (including media) in every society faces same problem: how to take advantage of power to create social arrangements  totalitarian regimes: force people to act certain ways  China & control of media  elites in democratic societies: find other ways to protect privileged position  ―manufacture of consent‖  free press: functions to promote elite privileges  myth vs. reality  function— ways for media to control what we know and how we respond:  direct the masses into thinking about things that don‘t actually matter instead of things that do  marginalize dissent— people say whatever they like but they don‘t get coverage  create necessary illusions— media promotes ways of seeing the world to benefit elite, ie. there are terrorists everywhere  moral panic  Chomsky: media promotes views that are sympathetic by the series of filters used— newspapers provide news in TV radio, paid by advertisements, paid by big businesses: if the story threatens big businesses, they will not report  filter media ownership— owned by small businesses, transnational corporations: Vivendi, Sony, BMG, AOL Time Warner, PLC  ―series of filters‖ 1. TV, radio, newspapers 2. advertising 3. big business The Corporation  Fox News (1997): created a program  Akre & Wilson to look at problems in the society o studied BGH (growth hormone), drug developed by Monsanto to ↑ lactation of cows  contained carcinogenics) Newspaper Info Sources  government  big businesses  Think Tanks— aligned with government & big businesses  Chomsky: these ensure stories promote views sympathetic to economic elites (at least in America) o to trust it, need to demonstrate media promotes skewed perspectives o paired comparisons: look at how media frames same event differently depending on whether it is favorable or non- supportive of society  hostile business reported quickly to mobilize government if military wants to move in Suicide Car Bombings  portrayed as religious extremists  Pape: only 43% of suicide bombers are religiously driven  rest are rational— trying to push out occupying forces  mainstream media portrays as religious fanaticism  does not give full picture  paired comparison: Suicide Bombers American Bombers  motivation: irrational  motivation: implicitly rational  individual incidents reported  individual incidents not reported  precise number of casualties  precise number of casualties reported unmentioned  Chomsky: selective reporting functions to manufacture consent to attack others Targeted Public  focus on links between media and preservation of inequality in society  passive  alternative press: using twisted American mainstream  ZNET  real news  word warriors  media alert PREDICTIONS  daily ways of communicating will see a shift  global contributions to solving problems— but… o connection to the information revolution will become a global privilege o access to communications will be seen as a source of intensified division (and not enlarged community) o consumer capitalism dominates media and marginalizes real problems The Economy & Work 1/16/2013 1:11:00 PM Work  an activity that makes physical materials (manual work), services (service work), or mental constructs/ideas (intellectual work) more useful  humans‘ work differs from animals in two ways: 1. conceptualization 2. purposive and conscious, not by instinct  due to language  work = central to human‘s existence  sell labor to make profit  work is a social product: people seek meaning in work EVOLUTION OF MODERN WORK Historical Overview  economy: social institution organizing the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services 1. produce 2. distribute 3. consume  agricultural revolution began 5000 years ago  subsistence economy: hunting & gathering— accumulate what is necessary:  no accumulation of surplus  no private accumulation of wealth  simple division of labor: social-gendered  men hunt & women gather  social DOL: dependent on gender and age  detailed DOL: production divided among dozens of people; each individual focuses on one element of the product rather than the overall product  people in same social categories do widely different tasks  often viewed as harmful Agricultural Revolution- began 5000 years ago 1. increase in productive power 2. accumulation of surplus 3. establishment of market exchange  based on family economy: kids used to work farm Industrial Revolution— mid 1700s  factory reproduction system  changes:  new forms of energy (steam engine)  centralization of work in factories (separated family from work)  manufacturing & mass production (using steam engine)  specialization (detailed division of labor  interdependency)  wage labor (no longer self-employed)  Marx: effect of industrialization would be social discontent  working class taking control of entire system  Durkheim: detailed DOL leads to anomie (normlessness)  Weber: problems arise due to organizational changes that accompany industrialism  industrial revolution  rapid expansion  need to control workers  two methods developed: 1. scientific management: workers perform in set, repetitive ways; control workers to maximize output 2. Fordism: mass production for a mass market using assembly lines  problems: small-batch productions inefficient, resistance (absenteeism), lack of recognition  social contract: hard work and greater production of goods and services each year  economic growth  ↑ return on investments  ↑ standard of living ECONOMIC SYSTEMS 1. Capitalist  private ownership  exchange relationship between owners/workers  driven by profit motive  pursuit of personal profit  free competition & consumer choice a. Welfare Capitalism: mostly market-based economy plus extensive social welfare to provide for basic needs b. State Capitalism: privately owned corporations working closely without government 2. Socialist  collective ownership  pursuit of collective goals  government control of economy  distribution of goods without profit motive  designed to eliminate competition  everyone works for government  limits right to private property  no inheritance  reject consumer-driven production  economies are a mix between capitalist and socialist Capitalist/Socialist Continuum Socialism Capitalism China Sweden Singapore USA Advantages of Capitalism/Socialism Capitalism Socialism  higher economic productivity:  more economic equality: less outproduces socialism by 2.7x income disparity  ensures freedom to act  lower overall living standards (individualism, rights)  ensures freedom from want, stresses need Organizations  formal organization: large, secondary groups organized to achieve goals efficiently  rigid rules and plans to maximize profit  expanded with rise of capitalism  established to make work more efficient and to achieve goals  common and run complex human activities  eg. corporations, schools, government agencies, political parties  Weber: spread of formal organizations linked to rationalization: concern with achieving more with less  develops into bureaucracy: an organization employing formal organizational techniques  Weber: every bureaucracy shares 6 characteristics: 1. specialization and division of labor: individuals responsible for own part 2. hierarchy of authority: chain of command 3. rules and regulations: standardized activities means higher efficiency 4. impersonality: interactions based on rules rather than personal feelings 5. technical competence, careers, tenure: evaluation based on individual accomplishment rather than connections 6. communications formal and written: record of interactions  3 types (Etzioni):  utilitarian: pays people for efforts  gain material rewards, eg. jobs  normative (moral): allow us to pursue a goal we think is morally worthwhile, eg. voluntary organizations  coercive: forced to join, punished or treated (total institutions), eg. jail  informal organization: arises within formal organization with need  consists of informal rules and interactions that enable workers to meet challenges of daily life  made up of activities not prescribed, but necessary to complete task  flexible and easily transformed  negotiated order theory (Corwin): organizational structures emerge from meaningful interpersonal interaction, ie. organizations are temporary and developed through negotiation of its members  iron law of oligarchy (Michel): all organizations that rule by the many will inevitably become rule by the few who will serve their own needs first  McDonaldization (Ritzer): principles and organization of fast food restaurants permeate society  four principles: efficiency, calculability, predictability, control  controls both workers and consumers  potentially dehumanizing and harmful Global Economy  expands economic activity with little regard for borders  consequences for Canadian workers: weakening of political power for workers & union  consequence for developing countries: legally unprotected & non- unionized  global DOL  national governments have less control  small number of businesses control vast share of market  exploitation became global  negative consequences:  homogenization of culture  we are becoming one culture  intensification of DOL (class, sex, race) PROBLEMS Inequality  occupational segregation: people in different social categories tend to do different types of work  based on sex, race, age  due to sex based interests, socialization, education, ideological beliefs/prejudices  youth employment dropping due to longer education  delayed adulthood Resistance  resistance: actions aimed at slowing, reversing, avoiding, or protesting management directions or strategies in the workplace  manifests on any scale: few people to millions  forms of resistance: absenteeism, petty theft, gossip, delayed work  sabotage: activities aimed at destroying employers‘ property or otherwise disrupting the flow of production  Salaman: rewards that workers expect vary depending on what they share in terms of norms, values, knowledge  unions: worker organizations that seek to improve wages and working conditions through strategies including negotiations and strikes  formed when rewards consenting to a situation are insufficient and losses are not too great  1/3 workforce is unionized  advantages: high wages, gains spillover into wider society (rights fought for become norms) reduce conflict and resistance by reducing insecurity and increasing education and information  scientific management most likely to provoke resistance Self & Underemployment  self-employment: earning a living without working for a large organization  fastest growing type due to downsizing of corporate culture (17%)  longer hours, earn same  less of one‘s talent: overqualified  underemployment: using less than one‘s full talents or abilities  50% uni grads in jobs that do not require such credentials  reserve army of labor: last to be hired, first to be fired  women, minorities, youth  unemployment  increased with downsizing  increased in industrialized countries since end of social contract  rarely below 5% — official statistics understated  some part time work involuntary  higher for visible minorities, Natives, younger people  due to: 1) increase in small-batch production, 2) movement of jobs to developing countries (cheaper labour costs), 3) reduction in government provisions, 4) technological change CHANGE  downsizing: reducing number of employees while keeping profits high  ↑ unemployment rates  ↓ standard of living  most Canadians less well off than before  globalization of production: companies look worldwide for most profitable place to set up production  creates competition  investors demand Canadian workers to be paid less  reduction of government spending resulted in loss of jobs and decline in social programming THEORIES Functionalists  capitalism benefits a society  brings prosperity to a society as a whole  Durkheim— led to 3 things: 1. breakup of integrated communities 2. loss of sameness (anomie)— normlessness 3. people not committed to new rule of mass production worker, or to the new norms of the society Conflict Theorists  capitalism harms a society  rich exploits poor  Scientific Management Theory (Taylor): capitalist economy as a whole:  organizing work  controlling workers  factory industrial work separates mental from manual labor  technical control: control of workers by a machine  deskilling of workers  workers transformed into economic individual, motivated only by profit  problem: overlooks worker‘s need for intrinsic satisfaction (some people like their jobs)  Marx: capitalism leads to alienation from…  productive process— no meaning in job  product  other workers  self  people respond to alienation in an instrumentalist fashion (Goldthorpe): people will work at unfulfilling jobs if paid well so they can enjoy leisure time  capacity for self-fulfillment  cannot fulfill species-being Symbolic Interactionists  shared beliefs created capitalism  protestant ethic: capitalism was created and is sustained by the early Protestants‘ belief that God rewards hard work with tangible means ($$)  Weber: rationality and bureaucracy  we are becoming a rational society— acceptance of rules, efficiency, and practical results as the right way to approach human affairs  bureaucracy: an organization model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently FUTURE  insufficient work for skilled workers  imbalance between resistance and consent  people experience great dissatisfaction yet fear loss of jobs  prevents resistance  organization of work to be done  increase workers or use system of organization, where profits are most important? Education 1/16/2013 1:11:00 PM  education: the social institution through which society provides its members with important knowledge  form follows function— extent of schooling in a society closely tied to level of economic development  Marxian idea  high income societies: nations endorse education  low income societies: little to no schooling Functions of Schooling  employment preparation  socialization: learn about norms and values in society  formal curriculum: open-stated goals of education systems  to create knowledge workers  learn to read, write, be citizens: manifest function  hidden curriculum: subtle presentations of political or cultural ideas in the classroom  important knowledge for functioning in , everyday life, ie. cooperation, submission to authority, timeliness, etc.  latent function: unstated, sometimes unintended  provides cultural lifeline linking generations through common language  people gain approved status o 1. Custody  primary school: babysitting  secondary school: dating & mating  university: gate keeping; slowing process into labor market o 2. Stratification: sorting & gate-keeping; provides free equal education— meritocracy: based on talents, abilities  tracking: track people based on socioeconomic status and family background— role differentiation through testing  correspondence principle: schools provide learning according to student‘s social background o 3. Cooling Out: convincing people that the system is fair, you are the problem  teaching-expectancy effect: impact that a teacher‘s expectancy can have on a student‘s actual achievement; conceals the fact that the system cannot help everyone (there are factors other than human capital that provide basis for certification)  reproducing status quo instead of creating equality  promote social solidarity  means of social control (gate keeping)  emphasis on competitiveness, performance testing, and a division of subjects as grade level rises  testing, grading, streaming, credentialing sort individuals into different positions in social and occupational hierarchy, ie. who will become the lawyer and who will become the janitor  individuals socialized to accept and understand future positions in social hierarchy  Canada signed NAFTA meaning no more universal programs  buying into a counterproductive ideology: false consciousness Rise of Schooling  all about social control  with urbanization and child labor laws— kids not allowed in factories  in the streets  school to get them off the streets  state exercise control over children & parents  nowadays: child welfare act: tool of surveillance  anyone in administration of school, if they suspect child abuse, must report it Labelling, Streaming, Tracking  labeling: teachers label students based on subjective assumptions which affect their learning and status as students o labels create self-fulfilling prophesies o streaming and tracking: students learn better with academically ―like‖ peers o students learn at same rate, have similar knowledge, support another in learning o proven incorrect by Oakes: students placed in lower streams develop lower levels of self-esteem; standardized tests placing students are culturally biased and unreliable ENGAGEMENT & ACHIEVEMENT o engagement: being psychologically committed to learning o factors in psychological absence  tired, stress, distractions  who is paying for schooling?  family/friend problems  interest in subject matter o Canada‘s engagement very low  physically present, psychologically absent o Steinberg & Cote: studied education for 30 years Disengagement o students believe in benefits associated with degree o believe success in labor force depends on # years of schooling completed o skeptical about learning and doing well o factors external to school— peers, family, ethnicity— impact engagement in school Influence of Peers  contemporary American society pulls teenagers away from school toward social and recreation pursuits  correlated to:  consistency of attendance  time spent on homework  grades  pressure not to succeed academically  20% people make fun of those who study hard  > 50% peers never discuss homework  parental involvement is the key to academic success  only 20% of HS parents in America consistently attend school programs, 40% never attend Ethnicity  Asian-Americans perform better than whites, whites better than blacks and Latinos  depends on beliefs about impact of failure  41% Asian-Americans have a degree  23% Americans have a degree  Asians have friends who believe in academic excellence  less emphasis on social life  Americans think doing poorly doesn‘t matter; having the degree is all that matters Low Expectations  1/6 students believe parents don‘t care about good grades  over 50% can bring home grades of C without upsetting parents  parents believe they should back off HS kids  HS teachers participate in this via suggestion Paid Labor and Schooling  after-school employment distracts students from academics  work >20 hours:  earning lower grades  spending less time on homework  cutting class more often  cheating more frequently Employment  economic prosperity of nations and successful careers positively correlated to high levels of formal education  industrial employment replaced with service employment  national economic success depends on ability to innovate and provide value-added products and services  to be provided by professionals; requires post-secondary and possibly post-graduate education  lifelong learning: need to engage in constant learning and to upgrade skills in a postindustrial economy Positive Impacts on Engagement  positive school climate  parents‘ high expectations  high response, high demand  involvement in child‘s education EXPERIENCING SCHOOL Student Roles  students establish own cultural norms and coping mechanisms  learn to exploit the educational system  school subcultures do not place a high value on being bright or academically oriented  Eder‘s findings:  popularity strongly related to social class  small minority of students perceived as lowest end of hierarchy  due to perceived unattractiveness (especially girls)  special education students o homosexuality associated with social rejection  homophobia o high schools‘ subculture less rigid Bullying  bullying can be physical, verbal, social, electronic  peer presence positively related to persistence of playground bullying  peers actively join in bullying  older boys more likely to join in, due to: 1) sharing powerful status of bully, and 2) desensitization to acts of violences  passive audience encourages bully  sexual harassment  boys commit more than girls; see it as a ―natural‖ dominance game  girls perceive it as more harmful than boys; experience more severe and physical forms; left more traumatized  Stein: school, peer, and pop cultures trivialize sexual harassment  need to focus more on equity and social justice than competition and authority 1. severe violence  shootings leave us with a greater sense of vulnerability because we expect schools to be completely safe  violent acts at school treated as criminal offences  related to community and larger culture SOCIAL INEQUALITY Gender  women surpassed men in attaining undergraduate degrees  more men study engineering, mathematics, computing  women who study these fields practice less prestigious subdisciplines and earn lower incomes  more men than women in PhD  women encounter more difficulties in climbing corporate ladders— glass ceiling Ethnicity  lack of minority teachers  white, middle-upper class curriculum  undercurrents of racism may run through school practices and knowledge  Aboriginal Canadians have lowest average level of educational attainment  average new immigrant arrives with higher level of education than Canadian-born people  Ogbu: 3 types of minorities  autonomous minorities: numerical minority; largely integrated into culture and no difference in education  voluntary minorities: immigrants who moved voluntarily  involuntary minorities: minorities via subordination; least likely to see cultural values reflected in education  less motivated; overt discrimination = human capital is worth less; trapped between denial of ethnic identity or denial of mainstream values & norms  critical pedagogy: seeks to make education more empowering and help social change  education should allow students and teachers to understand roles in educational process and social structure  deeper understanding of social relations Social Class  predictor of educational and occupational achievement  parent‘s level of education influences:  children‘s level of educational attainment  career choice  educational and occupational patterns after high school  resistance theory (Willis): working-class students actively reject middle-class values of school while embracing working-class values of manual labor  personal actions reproduce existing inequalities  rational choice theory: individuals make decisions based on how they can maximize return on investments  lower classes less likely to invest in high levels of education due to limited financial resources and afraid of failure, ie. return on investment in education would be low  correspondence theory: rise of mass secondary education corresponds to industrialization and need for disciplined workforce  streaming and tracking in such a way that curriculum corresponds to social class provides differences in education  students develop attitudes about how work is done which prepares them for the different roles in the workplace PROBLEMS IN SCHOOL Dropping Out  constant over past 30 years  2/3 dropouts are males  8.5% HS students drop out  ½ go back before 20 years old  push vs. pull factors— structural or individual Structural Push Pull  learning environment  high paying jobs  safety  minimum wages ↑  geared towards middle-upper = 1% drop out class values  classify by education  Individual Push Pull  isolation  cost  lack of support  pregnancy  bullying  learning disabilities  failing  policies  dropouts include…  Aboriginal Canadians  involuntary minorities— Obgu: displaced persons (people forced out of their country) experience discrimination; children feel oppositional identity: ―screw the system‖ and reject link between credentials and employment out of hurt  those who change schools often— hard to have sense of belonging (Durkheim)  socioeconomic status— working class has no role models or support  Asian Canadians: 3.5%  in Toronto, 40% Spanish speakers— structural issue: problems with ESL programs; not enough support Dropouts and Employment  most work at undesirable jobs  males more likely than females to look for work  earn 1/3 less than HS grads, but eventually unemployed  minority dropouts have higher unemployment rates  many have functional illiteracy: cannot read & write well enough to get by daily Access to Higher Education  higher education: main path to occupational achievement  most crucial factor affecting access: $$  cost: prevents marrying people from attending  30% people with Bas have a debt of $26k  university becoming very elite— estimated cost of $100k living at home by 2030 University Attendance by Income (2006)  parental income: generally, the lower the income, the lower the rate of attendance— except at <25k: more funding, scholarships  having a parent with a university degree = ↑ children‘s attendance by 57.6% Socioeconomic Factors  Bordieu  cultural capital: knowledge and skills attained in understanding and manipulating dominant culture of society; experience and internalization of cultural resources (closely lined with middle-upper class)  what curriculum of education is based on  upper-middle class have more disposable income to give children these resources  give a 1 GPA advantage in K-undergrad  no value in grad school  Lehmann: upper-middle class see value in learning for learning, working-class believe learning should be immediately applicable and relevant to career  habitus: we are products of our social environments; family social environment  lens through which you see the world  affects familiarity with jobs, aspirations, academic achievement and therefore career opportunity  education reinforces expectations in habitus  Lehmann: students‘ educational/occupational aspirations are extensions of what parents do/have done  symbolic violence: working-class students‘ life experiences not reflected in curriculum  self-selection (dropping out of school) and self-censorship (not going to post-secondary)  these processes of social reproduction affected both by institutional structures and individual dispositions  government uses tokens (people who are exceptions) to ―demonstrate‖ equality  is it worth getting a Bachelor‘s degree?  some argue it is too commonplace; becoming equivalent to a HS diploma  must have it to ―get in the door‖  some argue students are oversold in the concept of university and don‘t look at alternatives— we‘ve created an elitist value in trades & apprenticeship Credential Inflation  underemployment: skills acquired from education unnecessary for occupation  57% Ontario employees overqualified for jobs  level of education a predictor of underemployment: the higher the level of education, the more likely to be employed  too many people are being allowed into universities  labour market doesn‘t have enough jobs for people the number of people who graduate annually  recession caused college graduates/trades to be employed more than university graduates  credential inflation: requirements to enter professions increased even though job demands have remained the same THEORIES Functionalism  education fulfills specific needs within society  Parsons: social institutions are responsible for inculcating common social values  individuals internalize values into personality: understands social expectations, rules, norms  key function of education: redirect young people from emotional and person-centered demands of home and family life  formalized, competitive, achievement-oriented demands of adult life  school prepares individuals for:  different roles in workplace  nature of social life  believing social roles are based on fair and meritocratic principles  inequality based on meritocracy: we achieve our roles through universal standards and criteria, eg. talent, motivation, tenacity, hard work  streaming helps students develop better and more positive attitudes about self and teachers can teach more effectively Conflict Theory  inequality based on gender, race, ethnicity, social class  education reproduces these inequalities  programs directed at young workers in specific occupations and trades, ie. internships, co-op placements, etc. are not given the opportunity to reflect on experiences in the workplace  limits ability to reflect critically on employment practices and their roles in the workplace  schools and education system integrated into capitalist system of production Feminism  boys tend to dominate classroom interactions and aggressive behavior more likely to be rewarded by teachers  boys socialized to be competitive, girls nurturing  women‘s experiences disregarded in curriculum FUTURE  education now framed around individual and national competitiveness  ―back-to-basics‖ ideology  neo-liberal policies focused on reducing role of government and seeking free-market-based solutions to social issues  promote charter schools and school vouchers  critics argue this would change the outlook on education  develop into a two-tier education system Religion 1/16/2013 1:11:00 PM Defining Religion  substantive definitions: emphasize what religion is  often too exclusive  functionalist definitions: emphasize what religion does  often too broad  religion: any culturally transmitted system of beliefs used to orient people and set meaning for the sacred  Durkheim  used to justify cultural, empirical colonization  fuels conflicts around the world  new forms of religious expressions found in social movements around peace, human rights, environment, etc.  evidence that it is has been an enduring institution in all societies  differs in content, practice, form  culturally specific when it first emerged, is now global  used as an ideology to perpetrate conflict  Westhues: religion is any set of beliefs… people respond to the fact of limitation… the existence of a beyond (we are limited— not all-knowing); death, uncertainty, and inequality…  religion supports us in our limitations, anxieties, fears Assessing Religiosity  Glock and Stark: 1. experiential: contact with supernatural? 2. ritualistic: participation in public rites 3. devotional: participation in activities such as praying 4. belief: agreement with doctrines of faith 5. knowledge: recognition and understanding of beliefs 6. consequential: effects on everyday life 7. communal: extent of association with members 8. particularistic: degree to which one thinks their religion is the one and only true path to salvation DURKHEIM  sought to understand functional role of religion  because religion is present in all societies, it must serve a key function in any society (social order)  cannot be based merely on illusion or superstition; wouldn‘t have survived over time  religious beliefs and practices protected moral integrity of social relations  definition: concern with the sacred— substantive, create a sense of community— functional  religion is always social phenomenon  sacred objects and activities are those shared by the group but treated with awe and respect  some objects seen as sacred and others as profane  sacred objects represent, in part, the greater power  religion came out of group behavior & group performance, not down from ―above‖  reification of society: the society becomes the religion  in participating in religion, we develop collective effervescence: sense that there is a greater supernatural power, which we experience even we‘re alone, and collective conscience: feeling part of the cultural community  religion persists because we internalize it  develop a conscience  individual is socialized and carries the groups norms, values, etc.  religion‘s power over human minds is the power the group has over the minds of individuals  ―isms‖ (globalism, nationalism, Nazism…) assume religious membership  an attempt to eliminate all other faiths but communism (?)  Bellah: Americans developed a civil religions made of beliefs, symbols, etc. that sanctify American ways of life, making others suspect— American is the pinnacle way to live Symbols  play a part in legitimating the values/beliefs in religion Functions of Religion  represents society through rituals and myths  creates a transcendence in those who participate  there is a power that is greater than people giving these objects a power  objects are not inherently sacred or profane  sacred are those things shared by the group  profane or secular are done by the individual  possession and commonality reinforced by positive rituals: group members gather  gives a sense of belonging: mechanical solidarity  meets certain needs for individuals 1. integration: church/temple services— membership enhances solidarity 2. regulation: profane and sacred: washing & prayer sessions— pre/proscriptions underpin social control of individuals 3. empowerment: reason to persist through adversity—make people believe there is a reason to live 4. interpretation: misfortune or deaths— provides an approach to understanding the world 5. represent: link experience and belief— provides explanations for mysteries: helps us ―understand‖ why things happen  people who didn‘t have religion often become religious after a natural disaster whereas religious people often lost their faith WEBER  micro-theorist  religion was born of need to explain suffering and difficulty, ie. the discrepancy between what would be ideal and what was  religion is an agent of change  brought about Capitalism and Protestant Ethic by adopting ascetic approach: denying pleasures of material world  greater profits  wrote The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism: traced capitalism to Lutheran‘s concept of calling and Calvinism‘s doctrine of predestination  calling: occupation to which God has assigned them— gave labour a moral legitimacy  doctrine of predestination: ultimate status is predetermined— made them lead humble lives and earn more money, bringing rise to capitalism  essential to examine specific religions at specific times  must understand effects of ideas on actions  also aligned with Marx  agrees that economy is important but there are other factors  rejects idea that ideas are a manifestation of economy  (religious) ideas can influence civilizations— shows how they relate to the rise of capitalism  although material (economy) conditions are in India & China, only western Europe has capitalism ―Elective Affinity‖  compatible with capitalism  Calvinism: work hard to fulfill your purpose or ―calling‖  break away to form sects (Protestants) to go back to ―pure‖ word of God  early Protestants were Calvinists  formed Lutherism, Judaism, Islam… all sects led by one leader  espoused hard work but condemned luxury  ethic of hard work to serve God is compatible with growth of capitalism (work 6 days a week, put money back in business  growth)  believe in pre-destiny: nothing you can do about going to heaven or hell  they think, ―Why would God favor someone who is going to hell?‖ (re: hard working Lutherans) ―Routinization of Charisma‖  what happens when the leader of the sect is gone?  over time most religious movements compromise original ideals  organizational change to institutionalized part of society  begin to concentrate on worldly concerns of their members and leaders and long-term survival of the group MARX  concerned only with economy  different classes of people had different reasons for following and supporting religions  rich and powerful used religion to gain legitimacy for their wealth and power  examples of religion serving interests of the elite:  Christianity: suggests that what happens in this world is less important than what happens in the next world; discourages people from thinking about current life  fdfd  Hinduism: one‘s social position is due to how well one fulfilled ritual obligations in a previous life  functionalists only look at small scale societies with high levels of cohesion  modern society experiences uneven distribution, interests of religion supports dominant class  established religion legitimates a given social order  other institutions set up to support economic support  the exploited need relief from suffering  religion becomes an opiate: renders people passive to challenge social order  religion provides basis for social stability: opposing interests of dominant and submissive  accept earthly fate: contain potentially explosive forces; prone to rise up if not oppressed  Glenn (American social scientist) describes that black Americans attend church that pacifies their working-class status  made subordinate status verifiable: diversionary influence  religion may slowdown social change due to acceptance of status  short run: religion may facilitate survival in a dehumanizing environment  long run: religion may retard struggle for change Religions, Beliefs, and Intolerance  why does inter-group hatred persist when major religions of the world preach tolerance and acceptance of others? o Batson et. al: positive relationship between amount of religious involvement and amount of prejudice o Allport: people belong to religious organizations for different reasons— 1. extrinsic orientation: self-serving; uses religion to gain social rewards 2. intrinsic orientation: central part of self-concept; lives religion; guides behavior  relationship of intolerance: intrinsically oriented less prejudiced except in some cases: lesbians and gays, as it is against their religion; accepting o
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