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Lecture

Lecture Note on Gender

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Department
Sociology
Course
Sociology 1020
Professor
Kim Luton
Semester
Fall

Description
- Intro to soc: 1,2,3,4 - 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 26 - everything up to socialization GENDER What Gender are You? 1. Male = 36 2. Female = 64 Gender – Males Under Construction - dont show emotion, unless its anger - alcohol, DUI - fighting - risk taking - solve problems with violents - Messereschiment: - young men gain status because of what we do (status) SEX - Biological category - Based on physiological differences - Sex is determined at conception as a result of cell formation - ascried with it - born with it Becoming Our Sex - Male -------------------------------- Female (either one or the other) - Obvious answer: sex is natural, biologically determined - BUT… - Estimate is 1-3% of babies born are “intersexed” - they are no descricly male or female Sex Codes: Premarital Sexual Standards - pre-matial sex codes - most countries tolerant sex before marriage 1. Abstinence standard - no sex before marriage 2. Double standard - granting men to have sex, but they don't marry "hores" 3. Love standard - sex is a physical expression of love 4. Fun standard - giving and receiving sex for pleasure, only if willing To which sex code do you adhere? 1. Abstinence - 8 2. Double standard - 1 3. Love standard - 63 4. Fun standard - 28 GENDER - Social category (we construct it) - Based on social expectations for individuals (cultural defined, whats should the sexes think?) - Set of social attitudes that can vary from culture to culture and over time within a society - Gender norms… ◦ rules specifying appropriate behaviour for each gender - ‘gender scripts’ Gender – Females Under Construction - appearance - construction on your body - diet, for appearance - shopping, consumption - exceptable to show emotions Gender-role Socialization Masculine ------------------------------------------------------------- Feminine - the dominant group is invisible - they are stereotypes (same since the 60s) Boys must be: - Masculine - Aggressive - Tough - Daring - Dominant They can't: - wear makeup - cry - wear dresses - baby sitting - wearing fingernail or toenail polish Girls must be: - Feminine - Soft - Emotional - Sweet - Submissive They can't: - work construction - play football? - race cars? - be physically agressive Is spitting in public a gender norm violation for women? 1. Yes - 80 2. No - 20 Is spitting in public a gender norm violation for men? 1. Yes - 21 2. No - 79 - there is an inverse between men and women - why is that? Becoming Our Gender ◦ Gender Identity - Achieved status - Master Status - gender socialization - Powerful aspect of self-concept which develops in accordance with the individual’s gender and the social definitions of that gender within the larger gendered order - anyone can perform any gender identity - we are not born with, we acheve them - Huoges - Master Status Gendered Order - treated different because of gender - Gendered order: set of structural relations through which people are treated differently because of their gender - Patriarchy: A system of dominance in which cultural, political and economic structures have been created by men and are maintained for the benefit of men as a group. (most of them are patriacrt) Gender Intensification - Process by which individuals are influenced to hyper-differentiate themselves from the other gender in terms of appearance and behaviour - Perpetuated by mass media and advertising in pursuit of $$$ - Adolescence is key period of this identity manipulation - “Tough Guise” - conform to traditional roles - we see over 3000 ads per day - 1/5 girls have a eating disorder - self improvment = beatufication (for females) - man = being large, and don't be gay Effects 1. Gender intensification ill prepares both men and women for the roles that they will later perform 2. Impossible standards leads to low self-esteem and high dissatisfaction 3. Emphasizes the dominant/submissive nature of the male/female relationship and perpetuates gender inequality Gender Stereotypes Do You Believe There are Profound Differences Between Men and Women? 1. Yes - 72 2. No - 28 Gender Stereotypes - Stereotype - a trait that is carried on to others ◦ Occurs when people believe others possess certain characteristics simply as a result of being a member of a particular group ◦ Gender Stereotypes ◦ Attributing certain characteristics to others simply on the basis of whether they are male or female - Example: Truckers are “male” - Example: Shoppers are “female” - it is an unbias factor, gender stereotypes Persistence of Beliefs about Gender Differences - Even when there is a statistically significant difference between males and females, for most characteristics there is more similarity than difference between the genders - Most human characteristics fall into a NORMAL DISTRIBUTION (the Bell curve) where a small proportion of people rate much higher; a small proportio
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