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School
Western University
Department
Sociology
Course
Sociology 2140
Professor
Gale Cassidy
Semester
Fall

Description
Inequality based on Sexual Orientation 02/02/2014 Sociology has heterosexist bias Heterosexist: “Within a heterosexist ideology or mindset, the concept of sexual orientation  is rejected or deemed irrelevant. Wi hin a heterosexist ideology or mindset, the concept  of sexual orientation is rejected or deemed irrelevant.” Research Questions Methodology Language Used Gays and Lesbians underrepresented Findings overgeneralized Homosexuality: “Two­spirited” people “Within a heterosexist ideology or mindset, the concept of sexual orientation is rejected  or deemed irrelevant.” In Canada, 1969 Trudeau decriminalized 1996 most provinces legislated against discrimination  In US, Sodomy & same sex marriage still a crime Canadians examine what is immoral: Paedophillia 81% Homosexuality 31% “If financial constrains make accomplishing all of these ideas impossible, which ONE idea is more important  for the new government to accomplish?” 1/15: keeping budget balanced 14/15: ban same sex marriages Homophobic Individuals Study by Adams (U of Georgia) Individuals who score on ‘homophobic scale’ demonstrate significant sexual arousal to male homosexual  erotic stimuli. Ideological Discrimination People’s beliefs Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory Medicine and psychiatry Spiritual  Stereotypical beliefs Legal Discrimination Practices within state and federal judiciary systems “Don’t ask, Don’t tell, Don’t pursue” policy of the US military In 2005 Canada legalized same sex marriage Same­sex couples can be parents Occupational Discrimination Discrimination in wages and earning Harassment Lack of essential rights Homophobic Individuals Less personal contact with lesbians or gays Fewer homosexual behaviours Think peers have negative attitudes Older Less educated Reside where negative attitudes the norm Religious Traditional, restrictive attitudes Less permissive sexually High levels of authoritarianism  Homophobia more pronounced in US than in Canada Tolerance toward LGBT Increased Function of political movements Legislation positively affected attributes in Canada The Sex Trade in Canada 02/02/2014 Prostitution The sale of sexual services (of oneself or another) for money or goods and without emotional attachment “world’s oldest profession” sex work introduced in Canada by Europeans over past 4000 years – neither totally accepted or condemned early Christians tolerated it attempts to abolish it feminists are divided Prostitution in Canada Prostitution is not illegal but related activities are The Canadian criminal code refers to a common bawdy house “… a place that is kept or occupied, or  resorted to by one or more persons, for the purpose of prostitution or the practice of acts of indecency” Characteristics of Prostitution in Canada Tiers of Prostitution Top Second Third Extent of Prostitution in Canada No reliable estimates Activity is quasi­legal and hidden Criminal charges almost entirely deal with street prostitution People drift in and out of prostitution  The Sex Trade in Canada 02/02/2014 Demographics Women between the ages of 17 and 24 Runaways who left home/thrown out due to sexual abuse or other family problems Lower­income African American and Aboriginal women In the News: Prostitution Laws Struck down in Ontario The case 2009 3 sex workers argued that existing laws violated their charter rights of security of the person and freedom of  expression The decision Ontario superior court of Justice Effect of decision suspended for 30 days The consequences Sex workers would no longer be forced into the streets They could work from their home Easily report bad clients to cops Set up institutional structures and guidelines for themselves and other sex workers For the future Gov. considering appealing the decision Opinions Increases safety of sex workers The Sex Trade in Canada 02/02/2014 Sex workers can set up guilds/associations/standards/workmen’s comp/pay income tax Case does not solve problems associated with prostitution Government argued that provisions were valid and designed to protect individuals and young people Removal of provisions pose a danger to the public Global Sex Industry Prostitution Industrialized Normalized Globalized Trafficking in humans Extent of human trafficking is difficult to assess Clandestine nature of these offences  Reluctance of victims/witnesses to come forward Difficulty in identifying victims Most trafficking activity Montreal Toronto Vancouver Halifax Many Canadian women and girls trafficked within Canada – esp Natives “Mail Order Bride” programs used by Eastern European crime groups The Sex Trade in Canada 02/02/2014 Asian women trafficked into brothels Why? Poverty Lucrative business Displaced by war Ultimately – demand for it How are victims deceived? Direct contact with family and relatives Agents who scout for potential victims Misleading ads promising jobs and opportunity Marriage agencies Second wave recruiting Who are the traffickers? Transnational organized crime groups Small family criminal groups Individuals working independently Sex tourism Sex tourists are able to engage in exotic or forbidden activities – liminal space Some governments promote sex tourism to boost their economies  Alcohol & Drug Abuse  02/02/2014 Through a Blue Lens Nicola Clean Speaks at schools about overcoming addictions Randy 52 2006 Courage to Come Back Award Myths & Stereotypes Those with drug­related problems Families Communities Health care professionals People who take drugs Morally weak Have criminal tendencies Abusers should be able to stop Drug abuse and addiction A public health problem Not just ‘a lot of drug use’ Scientific evidence shows that addiction is a disease Chronic Relapsing Treatable Treatment can have profound effect Need to replace ideology with scientific knowledge Addictions Guest Speakers Shawn and Morris Crime & Criminal Justice
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