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Lecture

Unit 2.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course Code
Sociology 2240E
Professor
Amanda Zavitz

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Description
Enlightenment Philosophy10 Historical Influences2 elements influencing classical soc theory o a enlightenment o b romantic conservative reaction to enlightenmentsociology born from turmoil of French revolutionall intellectual fields shaped by social settingeach social theory is a perspective Events and StructuresFrance popn23million o 1000 KingsQueens o 1 milion Bourgeois o 214 million Peasants1789French Revolution o ppl fed up w monarchy o time of upheaval o overthrew monarchy to create constitution run by the ppl18101815NeapolitanBourgeoisie govnt given more political powerPolitical Revolution o Revolutions immediate factor in rise of social theorizingo Writers united by desire to restore order o Wanted to return to peaceful days of middle ages o Sophisticated thinkers sought to find new bases of order o Enlightenment period of intellectual development and change in philosophical thoughtIndustrial RevolitionCapitalism o IR swept through Western society and transformed agricultural system into industrial o Ppl left farms for urban factories o Capitalist economic structurefew benefited worked long hours o Led to radical movements o Urban problemsover crowding pollution o Social changes had effect on religion o Increasing emphasis on science 20 The Enlightenmentenlightenment philosophy of new ideas of justicephilosophers began rationalizing Neapolitians action restoration of order 2 most prominent thinkers assocd w enlightenment Charles Montesquieu and Jean Jacques Rousseauindirect and negative influence on social theory17C influences on thinkers of enlightenment o a Rational Philosophy Descartes o b Empirical Philosophy and Science Galileo Bacon Lockeone goal of enlightenment to bring these ideas togetherphilosophical generalizationemphasis on producing abstract systems of ideas making rational sense o later philosophers made greater efforts to derive ideas from real world and test them Themes of Enlightenment Philosophersa forerunners forerunners of sociological thoughtb reason o mind capable of comprehending universe and subordinating to human needs o reason was a property of all living humans and so distinguished bw reason and rationality o rationality logic of understanding means of actions and relationships to goals o reason is rationality plus an estimate as to whether or not goal should be pursuedbrought together moral judgment and reasonc idea that potential to develop and use reason is universal o if development doesnt occur not due to failure of individual but from social organization that restricts themd sciencecriticism o scientific spirit subjected major social institutions to rational ridicule o found traditional values to be irrational o scientific method must be used to inquire into traditional thought o if scientific method not used risk of bias o scientific method seen as tool to help think rationallye progress o progress central law of society o progress realization of human potential Defined as actualization of a reasoned existence where individuals rational and reasonablef individualism o stressed efficacy of individual and ability to comprehendctrl universe through reason and empirical researchg liberation of mind o free mind from strictly theological interpretations superstition fear of unknown and religious waysh combine empirical research w reason o scienceNewtonian Physics o Newtonian ScienceNewtons research had empirical basisexperienceobservationResearch based on assumption of universal order in material worldFacts fall into patterns and forms regularities relationships so order imminent in universe and discoverable through compilation of dataThis methodology distinguishes 18C from 17C
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