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Lecture 2

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Western University
Sociology 2240E
Charles Levine

Wednesday September 26, 2012 Lecture 2 Questions: 1. What is society? Answers: Organicism, atomism 2. What is human nature? Some theorists think we are things by nature- happy/sad etc, they think we are something by nature. Other perspective: nurture- won’t deny that people are happy, sad, smart- they agree with the list but they say they are dispositions that are taught to us. 3. What are the relationships among society culture and the individual? Some theorists think we are reactors- organicists think this- we are a role in society (student, teacher etc). Other theorists think we are actors- can mean autonomy, or we are individuals- human beings can sometimes demand change in society and give reasons to those changes- we can step out of our roles (e.g become persons instead of just students) - If you are a organicist, you are likely to be nature(2) and a reactor (3) - If you are a atomist, you are likely to be nurture (2), and an actor (3) - They can be the opposite but it is highly unlikely - Epistemology- a way of knowing, a style of knowing - Sociologists use two forms of epistemology: realism or nommalism : 4. What analytical Epistemologies are used? - If you are a realist you explain social events and processes without reference to human intentionality, but with reference to “natural” processes. - By natural could mean, human nature, biological factors, historical factors- by natural we mean everything that isn’t human intentionality - A realist wouldn’t talk about a person’s wants - Example: C. Wright Mills- our motives are not significant until after we do the act - Nommalism: a person who explains social processes and events with reference to human intentionality - Descriptive logic: telling you what something was - These terms are not only used descriptively but prescriptively - Prescriptively Logic: saying what something ought to be - If you are saying what something ought to be it is a value claim - Value claims usually go hand in hand with the willingness to defend the claim - Prescriptive nommalism- making judgements about what people ought to be like. - Prescriptive realist: makes moral claims about society, processes- they are doing something and its good, or its not. - A moral judgement is a prescriptive judgement - Make descriptive and prescriptive judgement all the time: it is a fundamental split in social theory - Value biases- believing the way you think is right. Ego involved. - Social theory isn’t value-neutral. - In the social world you think you are being objective, but what you are describing is how you feel about an issue - Facts are always related to values or judgements - What we call a fact may have something to do with time 5. What is the relationship between facts and values in social theory? - What is a fact: - Correspondent theories of truth, coherence theories of truth, consensus theories of truth - Have to have consensus for something to be a fact - The agreement (consensus) of what something is says something about language, the need to make sure about something pertaining to the interaction. - Have to engage in mutual respect in order to come to a agreement - Facts don’t exist outside of the moral commu
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