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Marx Lecture 3

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Sociology 2240E
Brendan Murphy

Marx Lecture 3 Industrial Revolution - During the 1780s-1820s, Britain and then Europe went through a period of huge technological and social change - The rise of mechanization - Made mass-production possible - Had competition of mass-production globally (ex. Russian vs. American) - Small workshops and workers were quickly put out of business by the new industrialists o As a result, people became factory workers Background to Marx - Born in Trier, Germany, to an (ex-)Jewish middle-class family o In Germany Jewish people were banned from getting any prestigious job so his father converted to Lutheran Protestantism, becoming an attorney - He left for university but was booted out a year later for basically being a badass  sex, fighting, all that fun stuff - He left to the same university that Hegel attended o There he got interested in philosophy and there he read about Hegel o Marx was only 19 at the time - He was a journalist for a newspaper in Cologne o He lost his job for supporting workers o He was fired because of the secret police - Basically Marx was an academic but also a badass and not a nerd Marx’s Refutation of Hegel - Marx argues that it is not thought that creates the world, but it is the world that creates thought - What is thought in a social/human world? o Does it make the abstract real, or is it the real made abstract? o What kind of power does thought have? - How can thought be valid if our minds are biased by our society? o Our world isn’t free from pressure and it’s a mistake to think this way Marx contra Hegel on ‘reality’ - Hegel says that the idea is a guiding force and an explanation for the social world - Marx says that material existence and relations produce the social world and ideas o If you want to look at society, you don’t look at the thoughts and ideals of the society, you just look at the material society Marx on Hegel’s perceptions of Religion - Hegel saw religion as the unfolding of Spirit in the natural world o A Truth that humans were beginning to fully understand  becoming closer to realizing what life really is by engaging with god - Marx is stating that religion exists in unequal positions  poverty, the oppressed, etc. o This creates a desire for something more, something better  religious belief o “it is the opium of the people”  it’s a painkiller o Religion will disappear when the need fo
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