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Lecture 11

Software Engineering 4453A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Software Engineering, Quality Management System, Collegehumor


Department
Software Engineering
Course Code
SOFTENG 4453A/B
Professor
Abdelnasser Hassan Ouda
Lecture
11

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Unit 4
Process Analysis
study of existing processes to understand the relationships between parts of the
process and to compare them with other processes
process analysis and process measurement are intertwined
need to carry out some analysis to know what to measure and when to measure, and
you develop an understanding of the process being measured
Process Analysis Objectives
to understand the activities involved in the process and the relationships between
these activities
to understand relationships between the process activities and measurements that
have been made
to relate the specific process or processes that you are analyzing to comparable
processes elsewhere in the organization, or to idealized processes of the same type
Process Analysis Techniques
published process models and process standards
always best to start process analysis with an existing model
questionnaires and interviews
must be carefully designed
participants may tel you what they think you want to hear
Ethnographic Analysis
involved assimilating process knowledge by observation
best for in-depth analysis of process fragments rather than for whole-process
understanding

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There are different aspects of process analysis
23
Aspects of Process Analysis
Process
aspect Questions
Adoption
and
standardization
Is
the process documented and standardized across
the
organization?
If not, does this mean that any measurements
made
are
specific only to a single process instance? If processes are
not
standardized,
then changes to one process may not be
transferable
to
comparable processes elsewhere in the company.
Software
engineering
practice
Are
there known, good software engineering practices that are
not
included
in the process? Why are they not included? Does the lack
of
these
practices affect product characteristics, such as the number
of
defects
in a delivered software system?
Organizational
constraints
What
are the organizational constraints that affect the process
design
and
the ways that the process is performed? For example, if
the
process
involves dealing with classified material, there may
be
activities
in the process to check that classified information is
not
included
in any material due to be released to external organizations
.
Organizational
constraints may mean that possible process
changes
cannot
be made.
24
Aspects of Process Analysis …
Process
aspect
Questions
Communications
How
are communications managed in the process? How
do
communication
issues relate to the process measurements that
have
been
made? Communication problems are a major issue in
many
processes
and communication bottlenecks are often the reasons
for
project
delays.
Introspection
Is
the process reflective (i.e., do the actors involved in the
process
explicitly
think about and discuss the process and how it might
be
improved)?
Are there mechanisms through which process actors
can
propose
process improvements?
Learning
How
do people joining a development team learn about the
software
processes
used? Does the company have process manuals
and
process
training programs?
Tool support
What
aspects of the process are and aren’t supported by
software
tools?
For unsupported areas, are there tools that could be
deployed
cost
-effectively to provide support? For supported areas, are the
tools
effective
and efficient? Are better tools available?

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Process Models
good way of focusing attention on the activities in a process and the information
transfer between these activities
models do not have to be formal or complete
purpose is to provoke discussion rather than document the process in detail
model-oriented questions can be used to help understand the process
what activities take place in practice but are not shown in the model?
are there process activities that you think are inefficient?
Process Exceptions
Software Processes are complex and process models cannot effectively represent
how to handle exceptions
several key people become ill just before a critical review
breach of security that means all external communications are out of action for
several days
organisational reorganization
a need to respond to an unanticipated request for new proposals
under these circumstances, model is suspended and managers use their initiative to
deal with the exception
Take Aways
goals of process improvement are higher product quality, reduced process costs,
faster delivery of software
principal approaches to process improvement are agile (geared to reducing
overheads) and maturity-based approaches (based on better process management)
cycle involves process measurement, process analysis and modelling, and process
change
measurement should be used to answer specific questions about process used
questions should be based on organizational improvement goals
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