Statistics 2037 - Chapter 7 Summarizing and Displaying Measurement Data.docx

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Statistical Sciences
Statistical Sciences 2037A/B
Emad Mohammad

Chapter 7 – Summarizing and Displaying Measurement Data Mean – average Median – the middle number (or average of the two middle numbers) Mode – the most common number Outlier – one or two numbers that are far from the other numbers Variability tells us how spread out the results are. We find the minimum and the maximum and determine the range. Shape shows a picture of the data. A stemplot is an easy way to organize a list of numbers. They are sometimes called stem and leaf plots or stem and leaf diagrams. First we make the stems. They are the first numbers of each number. The leaves are the second number of each number. You can repeat the numbers used for stems to give the picture more meaning. The shape helps identify outliers, the centre. Sometimes there are no obvious outliers. A histogram is a bar graph. We draw bars for the number of numbers within a range. They are drawn equal to the proportion that they account for. The sum of the bars must reach 100%. A symmetric data set is one that you can draw a line right through and have mirror images on either side. A bell-shaped data set is a very common symmetric data set. If there is one peak in a histogram or stemplot it is called unimodal. If there are two peaks it is called bimodal. A skewed data set is unimodal, but is not bell-shaped. It is skewed to the right if the higher values are more spread out than the lower values. If it is skewed to the left the lower values are more spread out. A skew is the direction of the unusual values. A five number summary is a summary of data using five numbers. Quartiles are the medians of the two halves of the ordered list. The lower quartile is a quarter up from the bottom and the upper quartile is a quarter down from the top. We can find these by finding the median of each half. A visually appealing way to show the five number summary is a boxpl
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