Visual Arts History 1040 Lecture Notes - Bourgeoisie, Marcantonio Raimondi, Henry Ossawa Tanner

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19th Century Landscape Cont.
Caspar David Friedrich, Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog, 1818
-surrogate for us giving us a guide to view the scene in front of us
-person is just an observer
Mark Lewis, Algonquin Park, September, 2001
-inspired by ^^
-looks to the past for inspiration
-does more then just look but actually wants to understand the past
-difference in scale (wanderer looks over the infinite) whereas this seems
to be more intimate
-emotion qualities generated by ^^
-no specific subject
-takes away identification, invites us into image itself
-canoe = inject people into landscape, emphasize moving image
Albert Bierstadt, Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, 1868
-Hudson river school of painters
-united them with a deep appreciation for nature/wilderness
-desire to use representation of the land to convey ideological messages
-lots without people, sell land as an untapped resource
-entrepreneurial
-manifest destiny
-expansion west with the logical destiny “this had to happen to the US”
-land already inhabited = erased from landscape works in order to sell the
land as a natural resource that can be taken
Frederic Church, Twilight in the Wilderness, 1860s
-focus on beauty of nature
-play on light = divine way (religiosity)
-erases natives and hints of conflict
-decade of the American civil war *** (and ^^)
-so much more then the „landscape‟ scene
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The 19th Century Realism
Empiricism (search for knowledge based on observation and direct
experience = world can be understood by close observation and
knowledge can come from experience alone) *John Locke*
Positivism (scientific laws governed the environment and human
activity and could be revealed through careful reporting of what‟s
in front of us = world truly is knowable if you follow the right steps.
Get rid of doubt and things that couldn‟t be proven scientifically)
…and Politics (old subjects of art were ridiculous growing poverty,
rising prices, unemployment working class from industrial
revolution)
-lots of impact on scientific thought today
-mythological things had no place in art
-you cant see history in an empirical way
-cant study or observe things created by myths
-attention to everyday life that surrounds them
-not unified by one approach
-commitment to painting the modern world as it appears (honesty)
-first art that attracted the label “Avant Garde” = those working in
advance (1825) tied to anarchist and plight of working classes
Gustave Courbet, The Stone Breakers, 1849
-painting no longer exists (burned during WW2)
-young boy and old man crushing rock to make gravel
-necessary work
-mechanics of movements and stay true to the real experience
-more then just the observation
-young boy wears contemporary clothing and old man wears old
peasant clothes
-old man = obsolete rural past, young = grim future (direct political
statement = future for those who follow this labour is doomed)
-scale of canvas reserved for history painting caused a stir in the art world
-anonymous workers, uses approach of history paintings
-depicts injustice
-irony of industrial civilization (unable to liberate people from the worst
labour although they are making cool new machines)
Gustave Courbet, Burial at Ornans, 1849
-HUGGGEEEE
-representation of ordinary people
-funeral inspired by Coubet‟s grandfathers funeral veteran of French Rev
(only alludes to this not a real depiction)
-draw link between French Rev and the Working class uprising
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