Visual Arts History 1040 Lecture Notes - Los Caprichos, Incubus, Francisco Goya

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THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
-Art Under Napoleon
-Romanticism
-shift form classical antiquity
-increased trade and exploration
-photography and thus cinema
Jacques-Louis David, Napoleon Crossing the Saint-Bernard, 1800-1801
-language of leadership and power
Jacques-Louis David, Coronation of Napoleon, 1805-1808
-enormous canvas
-history painting, documentation of significant event
-David’s ability to survive and adapt, thought Napoleon was the best for
the people but turned out to be a bad ruler
-only to a point is a real scene
-some people were there and others added (mother)
-structuring principles in group portraits
-tension
-see coronation of Naploeons wife instead (to show he is the one with
power)
-went to exile and died there in 1825
-influence in the art world on his students that pervades his followers
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Napoleon on the Imperial Throne, 1806
-tried to gain prestige by offering up to Napoleon
-appeal to the past
-question of revival with older style suggests certain connotations
-frontal pose and rigid formality: byzantine styles
-detail, symbolic accessories: Flemish works (van Eyck)
-roman classical antiquity (leaf crown)
-suggest his power and his connection with the past and pat great rulers
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Grande Odalisque, 1814
-his influence to the past was much purer than ^
-flat, linear style
-not making use of planes to create depth
-balance through colour and composition
-formal idealization
-elongated spine (3 extra vertebra)
-subject matter of contemporary interest (female slave/concubine) exotic
subject matter
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-wanted to be known as s history painter
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Princesse de Broglie, 1851-53
-one of his most famous
-society portraits
-enormous amount of detail (light reflecting on certain types of fabric)
-photo realist
-surreal skin, unnatural with no muscle definition = idealized the body
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, The Turkish Bath, 1862
-classical influence
-borrows from “Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres The Valpinçon Bather,
1806”
-stubborn refusal to be swayed by contemporary currents
ROMANTICISM
-defined by certain impulses you’ve already seen
-origins in rococo tendencies
-departs from neo classism but philosophical is still based in Enlightenment
philosophy
-Preoccupations:
Feeling/Emotion/Intuition/Freedom = (felt these things had been
neglected thus far). Ought to be pursued and respected. Look to
nature to find freedom. Resurrect appeal to these things.
The Sublime = interest into feeling that natures greatness and
overwhelming power to evoke. Defined by Edmund Burke, natures
capacity to inspire awe and terror yet quite thrilling. Element of fear,
wonder of the awesome power of nature. Still in tune with Immanuel
Kant. Concept of infinity using the human body to measure, the
body cannot even come close to the size of the universe; we are
overcome by the vastness. Size and space of nature.
Fantasy/Exoticism/Imagination = fantasy had a huge role in the
imagery.
The Middle Ages = return to the middle ages of all things medieval.
Modes of working, guild structure making things by hand and value
placed n Medieval practices to make something from hand to start
to finish. In the time of factory production.
Henry Fuseli, The Nightmare, 1781
-studies focused on art and theology and philosophy and art history
-emergence of the discipline of art
dark, supernatural subject matter
-impulse toward sensual, dreams
-incubus creature, demonic horse
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