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Western University
Visual Arts History
Visual Arts History 1040
Cody Barteet

EGYPT UNDER THE PHARAOHS - Nile v imp (flows up); upper and lower Egypt - Rosetta Stone: help read Egyptian hieroglyphs PREDYNASTIC AND EARLY DYNASTIC - People, boats, and animals, detail of watercolor copy of wall painting from tomb 100 at Hierakonpolis, Egypt, ca. 3500–3200 BCE - oldest Egyptian mural painting - random arrangement of motifs is characteristic of Neolithic painting - Palette of King Narmer (left, back; right, front), from Hierakonpolis, Egypt, ca. 3000– 2920 BCE - Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt - Not peaceful, bound captives, injured ppl (hier scale) - Recognizable b/c profile view, hieroglyphs, pointy chin, animals, clothes, headdress - Ground pigments in palettes to protect from sunlight - Narmur controlling beasts, assoc w/ bull; registers - One of earliest artifacts recording narrative - Imhotep, Stepped Pyramid, Djoser, Saqqara, Egypt, Third Dynasty, ca. 2630–2611 BCE - Living on one side of Nile, dead on other; all lined up (can see Great Pyramids) - Imhotep, first artist whose name is recorded - Detail of the facade of the North Palace of the mortuary precinct of Djoser, Saqqara, Egypt, Third Dynasty, ca. 2630–2611 BCE - earliest known stone columns - engaged (attached) to the walls and have shafts and capitals resembling papyrus stalks and blossoms OLD KINGDOM - Old Kingdom sculptors created seated and standing statuary types in which all movement was suppressed in order to express the eternal nature of pharaonic kingship - Great Pyramids, Gizeh, Egypt, Fourth Dynasty; Menkaure, ca. 2490–2472 BCE; Khafre, ca. 2520–2494 BCE; Khufu, ca. 2551–2528 BCE - Father, son, grandson; built soon after one another in short period of time - Pharaohs considered gods, need temples to them - Largest Khufu‟s; inside estm 2.3k blocks - Strong segregation of classes (slaves used to build structures) - Dirt ramps and heaved up stones (most likely) - Covered w/ white limestone after (v bright) (bring attention, representation of gods, Pharaohs descendants) - Pyramid shape simple for divine (Ra), cnx to divine - Palace of kings for afterlife, lots of burial chambers, buried w/ their jewels, possessions, slaves - Believed ka (spirit) resided in afterlife, wanted to preserve ppl; same life in afterlife - Lots of tomb raiders, eventually: vally of the kings to prevent looting - Priests allowed into complexes to do rituals and stuff - Lots of graffiti on exteriors - Great Sphinx, Gizeh, Egypt, Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2520–2494 BCE - lots of passages found - idea of eternal - pharaoh headdress; animal/human hybrid - Khafre enthroned, Gizeh, Egypt, Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2520–2494 BCE - Khafre and Gudea: both rigid positions, tight forms, made to last (permanence), feet flat on ground, platform (throne-like, hold up head), offering of hands, diorite, frontal presentation - Impassive face - Menkaure and Khamerernebty (?), Gizeh, Egypt, Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2490–2472 BCE - Rigid standing, close to each other, meant to show unity, don‟t break free of stone - One feet forward (his foot more forward: more power, ruler); woman in subordinate role - Standard code of convention (individuality is sacrificed); rigid canon of proportions, grid/measurements (more rigid in repr pharaohs b/c semi-divine) - Graywacke, permanence - Impassive face - Seated scribe, Saqqara, Egypt, Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2500 BCE - Believed to be Kay - More realistic, less rigid, colour, detail in face, depth and texture - Not a god therefore can be diff - Face slimmer than body, showers higher class - Scribes v imp b/c literate - Ti watching a hippopotamus hunt, relief in the mastaba of Ti, Saqqara, Egypt, Fifth Dynasty, ca. 2450–2350 BCE - successful hunt was a metaphor for triumph over evil - Ti‟s size reflects his high rank - Goats treading seed and cattle fording a canal, reliefs in the mastaba of Ti, Saqqara, Egypt, Fifth Dynasty, ca. 2450–2350 BCE - fording of Nile was metaphor for passage to afterlife - combine stereotypical poses for humans and animals with unconventional postures and anecdotal details MIDDLE KINGDOM - Fragmentary head of Senusret III, 12th Dynasty, ca. 1860 BCE - Realistic - Brooding expression reflects the dominant mood of the time and contrasts sharply with the impassive faces of Old Kingdom pharaohs - Rock-cut tombs BH 3–5, Beni Hasan, Egypt, 12th Dynasty, ca. 1950–1900 BCE - Hollowed out of the cliffs - often have shallow columnar porch, which leads into a columned hall and burial
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