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Visual Arts History
Visual Arts History 1040
Cody Barteet

THE ROMANS - One of largest empires ever, colonizing grp, multiethnic empire - Impressive engineering, many roads leading to capital THE REPUBLIC - Roman political structure long lasting effects, republics, elected senates speaking in our stead - Temple of Portunus (Temple of “Fortuna Virilis”), Rome, Italy, ca. 75 BCE - Republican temples combine Etruscan plans and Greek elevations - Pseudo-peripteral stone temple employs the Ionic order, but it has a staircase and freestanding columns only at the front - Temple of Vesta(?), Tivoli, Italy, early first century BCE - Tholos - High podium, staircase, frontal orientation, concrete cella - Restored view of the Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia, Palestrina, Italy, late second century BCE (John Burge) - hillside sanctuary made possible by the use of concrete barrel vaults for terraces, ramps, shops, and porticos spread out over several levels. - tholos temple crowned the complex - Head of an old man from Osimo, Mid-firstcentury BCE & Head of a Roman patrician, from Otricoli, Italy, ca. 75–50 BCE - Ugly, repr older age, v wrinkly (exaggerated), - wisdom, more mature, calm, more investment, moral values of the society, indv to be elected to set laws that govern state - busts, ancestor worship; taken out in rituals to show your lineage - Portrait of a Roman general, from the Sanctuary of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy, ca. 75–50 BCE - life-size portrait of a general on idealized Greek statues of heroes and athletes, but the man’s head is a veristic likeness - Combination is typical of Republican art - Funerary relief with portraits of the Gessii, from Rome(?), Italy, ca. 30 BCE - Roman freedmen often placed reliefs depicting themselves and their former owners on the facades of their tombs - The portraits and inscriptions celebrated their freedom and new status as citizens - Relief with funerary procession, from Amiternum, Italy, second half of first century BCE - procession of mourners and musicians in honor of a dead freedman has figures standing on floating ground lines - ignored the rules of Classical art that elite patrons favored - Denarius with portrait of Julius Caesar, 44 BCE - First to put his portrait on coins - issued just before his assassination, him with a deeply lined face and neck - Aerial view of the forum (1), with Temple of Jupiter (Capitolium, 2) and Basilica (3), Pompeii, Italy, second century BCE and later - Volcano erupted, buried city immediately, found casts of bodies, ash was nat preservation, lots of art preserved, get idea of how society functioned (brothels, bath houses, markets) - Brawl in the Pompeii amphitheater, wall paintingfrom House I,3,23, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 60–79 CE - Frescos, canopy (early indoor stadium) - Atrium of theHouse of the Veei, Pompeii, Italy, second century BCE, rebuilt 62–79 CE - Roman townhouses had a central atrium with an impluvium to collect rainwater - Cubicula (bedrooms) opened onto the atrium, and in Hellenized houses such as this one, builders added a peristyle garden at the rear - First Style: Wall Painting, Samnite House, Herculaneum, Italy, Late 2 nd century, BCE - Boards, fake painted marble - Second Style: - Wall Painting, Villa of Publius, Fannius Synistor, Boscoreale, Italy ca. 50-40 BCE - Illusionistic, broken pediment - Dionysiac mystery frieze, Room 5 of the Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii,Italy, ca. 60–50 BCE - Ritual rites, bright, engaging, festive - Nothing else in room, base on wall, raised up on platform (theatrical) - Enactment of rites, one person looking at viewer, visual cnx w/ viewer, objects engaging one another, looking at each other from aX the scene - Don’t see anything like this again until 1600s - Gardenscape,Villa of Livia, Primaporta, Italy, ca. 30-20 BCE - Pure landscape, linear perspective, vanishing point, depth - Third Style: Wall Painting, Villa of Agrippa Postumus, Boscotrecase, Italy ca. 10 BCE - Minimalistic - Fourth Style: - The Ixion Room, House of the Veei, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 70-79 CE - Archt objects put up around - Wall paintings in room 78 of the Domus Aurea (Golden House) of Nero, Rome, Italy, 64–68 CE - Irrational architectural vistas - Still life with peaches, detail of a wall painting from Herculaneum, Italy, ca. 62– 79 CE - paid attn to the play of light and shadow on different shapes and textures - Neptune and Amphitrite, wall mosaic in the summer triclinium of the House of Neptune and Amphitrite,Herculaneum, Italy, ca. 62–79 CE - In ancient world, mosaics were usually confined to floors, but this example depicting Neptune and Amphitrite decorates the wall of a private house - sea deities fittingly overlook an elaborate fountain - Portrait of a husband and wife, wall painting from House VII,2,6, Pompeii, Italy ca. 70–79 CE - V detailed EARLY EMPIRE - Portrait of Augustus as General, Primaporta, Italy, original ca. 20 BCE - Based on Greco tradition, contrapposto stance, ceremonial clothes on, armour (gods and goddesses on armour) - Little cupid, claiming divinity, orator pose, addressing ppl (hand up), assoc w/ philosophers and intellectuals, military figures assoc w/
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