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Visual Arts History
Visual Arts History 1040
Cody Barteet

ROMANESQUE ART (~1050-1200) - “roman-like” - Architecture relied on barrel vaults and groin vaults - Increased trade and growth in towns and cities - Also growth of churches - May have been b/c of milleniumism, in year 1000, huge anxiety about world ending - After that relief and prosperity - Pilgrimages: pilgrims are ppl who show their devotion by visiting various shrines and sacred places - would journey through long periods, often met w/ hardships, tough terrains, unfriendly ppl - way of demonstrating your devotion, idea of being absolved of sins or illnesses through the hardships - b/c of this, need to redesign churches to accommodate; routes for pilgrims to move along the perimeter and visit exterior chapels - relics to visit - scallop shell: symbol of pilgrims - Santiago de Compostela, - One of main destinations on a pilgrimage; routes v well travelled - Imp b/c birthplace of Saint James - Symbol of Christian resistance - Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France, ca. 1070–1120 - Honoured city‟s first bishop - Much of plan was for the pilgrims to move - Plan meant to be rhythmic and geometrical - Each nave one-half of crossing square ex. - Tribunes which used to overflow amount of ppl coming to churches at the time - Buttressing - Elements meant to be modular, means that crossing square w/ heavy piers - Use of compound piers, half columns on a pier, rectangular core and columns on it - Monastery of Cluny III, Cluny, France, 1088–1130 - Third abbey church of Cluny - Monks, religious order, Cluniac order, related to Benedictine order - V lavish - Great patrons of cathedrals and sculptures - At time of construction, largest church in euro and for 500 yrs after - Transept: makes shape of cross, cuts through, reference to body - Nave: middle area - Aisles go around - Radiating chapels - Angulatory: space you walk around behind the apse and access the radiating chapels w/o interrupting what‟s going on - Abbey church of Notre Dame, Fontenay, France, 1139–1147 - Less decoration, v simplistic - These monk emps life of poverty and prayer - Traversed barrel vaults: semi cylindrical orientated at a 90degree angle to the nave of the church - Beginnings of pointed-arches - Saint-Etienne, Caen, France, begun 1067, ca. 1115–1120. - Normans - William of Normandy (William the Conqueror) - Own style of Romanesque - Facade in three part segments, both horizontally and vertically - Careful and methodical in planning of interior as well - Groin vaults and engaged columns - Ribbed vaults (half columns, purely aesthetic) - Sexpartite vaults (meant that height of cathedral was more impressive, clerestory windows, more light in tribute area) - Three part elevation survives into gothic area as well - Pentecost and Mission of the Apostles, tympanum of the center portal of the narthex of La Madeleine, Vézelay, France, 1120–1132 - Architectural sculptures v imp in Romanesque - Entrance to the church, getting you into a mindset - Crusades, map - Christ as centre of the earth in a way, radiating around him is the Christian world, as goes out figures get smaller and further removed
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