19th century art ArtHistory 1040

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Visual Arts History
Visual Arts History 1040
Christine Sprengler

19 Century Landscape Cont. Caspar David Friedrich, Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog, 1818 -surrogate for us giving us a guide to view the scene in front of us -person is just an observer Mark Lewis, Algonquin Park, September, 2001 -inspired by ^^ -looks to the past for inspiration -does more then just look but actually wants to understand the past -difference in scale (wanderer looks over the infinite) whereas this seems to be more intimate -emotion qualities generated by ^^ -no specific subject -takes away identification, invites us into image itself -canoe = inject people into landscape, emphasize moving image Albert Bierstadt, Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, 1868 -Hudson river school of painters -united them with a deep appreciation for nature/wilderness -desire to use representation of the land to convey ideological messages -lots without people, sell land as an untapped resource -entrepreneurial -manifest destiny -expansion west with the logical destiny “this had to happen to the US” -land already inhabited = erased from landscape works in order to sell the land as a natural resource that can be taken Frederic Church, Twilight in the Wilderness, 1860s -focus on beauty of nature -play on light = divine way (religiosity) -erases natives and hints of conflict -decade of the American civil war *** (and ^^) -so much more then the „landscape‟ scene The 19 Century – Realism • Empiricism (search for knowledge based on observation and direct experience = world can be understood by close observation and knowledge can come from experience alone) *John Locke* • Positivism (scientific laws governed the environment and human activity and could be revealed through careful reporting of what‟s in front of us = world truly is knowable if you follow the right steps. Get rid of doubt and things that couldn‟t be proven scientifically) • …and Politics (old subjects of art were ridiculous – growing poverty, rising prices, unemployment – working class from industrial revolution) -lots of impact on scientific thought today -mythological things had no place in art -you cant see history in an empirical way -cant study or observe things created by myths -attention to everyday life that surrounds them -not unified by one approach -commitment to painting the modern world as it appears (honesty) -first art that attracted the label “Avant Garde” = those working in advance (1825) – tied to anarchist and plight of working classes Gustave Courbet, The Stone Breakers, 1849 -painting no longer exists (burned during WW2) -young boy and old man crushing rock to make gravel -necessary work -mechanics of movements and stay true to the real experience -more then just the observation -young boy wears contemporary clothing and old man wears old peasant clothes -old man = obsolete rural past, young = grim future (direct political statement = future for those who follow this labour is doomed) -scale of canvas reserved for history painting caused a stir in the art world -anonymous workers, uses approach of history paintings -depicts injustice -irony of industrial civilization (unable to liberate people from the worst labour although they are making cool new machines) Gustave Courbet, Burial at Ornans, 1849 -HUGGGEEEE -representation of ordinary people -funeral inspired by Coubet‟s grandfathers funeral veteran of French Rev (only alludes to this not a real depiction) -draw link between French Rev and the Working class uprising -attracted by critics seen to disrespect academic position and failed to reveal anything about the afterlife -Cross in the background, no sense of afterlife -built his own art show “Pavilion of Reason” because rejected from art gallery -also disliked because of how he painted (not based on compositional but rather
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