Late 19th Century

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Visual Arts History
Visual Arts History 1040
Christine Sprengler

Feb 15 12 thLate 19 CenturyKarl Marx Lived 18181883 Influenced by HegelHegelian Dialectic Thesisantithesissynthesis Base determines superstructure Material conditions determines cultureSuperstructure ideology culture politics etcBase material conditions forces and relations of productionCharles Darwin Lived 18091882 Model of evolutionnatural selection Growing interest in science Secularization of societysurvival of the fittest Later there was Social Darwinism which is the application of Darwins biological principles to the social realmHerbert Spencer ColonialismModernism ImpressionismImpression Sunrise By Claude Monet 1872 17x 2 1 A hostile critic applied the term impressionism in response to this painting but instead of taking it as an insult he and his fellow artists embraced it and started calling themselves impressionists Impressionist paintings incorporate qualities of sketches abbreviation speed and spontaneityHere the artist made no attempt to disguise the brush strokes or blend the pigment to create smooth gradation of tone and an accurate sceneImpressionism operated at the intersection of what the artists saw and what they felt so their paintings were neither purely objective description of the exterior world nor solely subjective responses but the interaction between the twoThe artist painted outdoors which sharpened his focus on the roles of light and colour in capturingan instant representation of the atmosphere and climate and his works seem transitory because ofhis studies into their function in the landscape Rouen Cathedral By Claude Monet 18921894 Oil on canvas various sizes approx 40 x 30 First of six different variations of the same painting that shows the artists intensive study into light and colour For each canvas in the series he observed the cathedral from nearly the same viewpoint but at differenttimes of the day or under various climate conditions This served to create an almost scientific record of the passing of time as seen in the movement of lightover identical forms Focuses on light and colour to reach a greater understanding of the appearance of form
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