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Visual Arts History
Visual Arts History 2262F/G
Cody Barteet

Introduction September 12th General Overview – NO NOTES! Italy September 19th Reformation: Challenge in the Catholic Church Indulges – paying money to the Church to pay away your sins Martin Luther Launches protestant reformation First real questioning of the Church in Europe Sexualized objects Printing Press: Colonization Start of the New World Contact with Asia Trans-Atlantic exchange Important Urban Centers Saint Peter Basilica Important for the development of the style So many people involved and transformations to it Steady progress to the Baroque era Simple in design and massive New St.Peter‘s Old St.Peter‘s was torn down to build this in 1400‘s (very traumatic) Beginning of the Christian Church Each Pope put a lot of money into it – essentially bankrupting the Church Last Supper One point linear perspective Groups of individuals creates harmony and symmetry (3) Classical idea David by Michelangelo Controposto Idealized bodies and forms (ripped) Heroic Moment of ―fight or flight‖ To fight Goliath or not Palazzo Rucellai Arching Roman style arch Mimicking the coliseum Elegant form Santa Susanna Not a pure renaissance façade Traditional flat sides Has depth San Carlo Fontane Convex and concave shapes On a corner Exterior echoes in the interior Cassave Plant with Caterpillar and Butterflies Artist: Maria Merian Leonardo starts doing scientific observations What can be classified as exotic others Scientific audience Baroque era is a time when races are being created. (―Racialized othering‖) Genre Style: Scenes of everyday life being produced in Baroque Historical landscape Nude women in the Church in paintings All art produced at this time is done on commission Insane amount of art production, made for decoration Drawing Academy Break from the guild system (you work for an artist and learn skill sets) Don‘t have the inclusion of women in the academies till later Spain at this time: Everywhere in the world Global empire United Kingdom of Spain Runs through the Caribbean Feast in the House of Levi Veronese gets in trouble because he is creating controversial figures in what is supposed to be the last supper Taken to the committee to explain this, all he did was change the name He claims ―artistic license‖ What is happening at the end of the 15 thcentury Fresco – painting on plaster The Last Judgment Sistine Chapel Needed to paint over all genitals Tomb of Giulano de Medici New styles Turned Would‘ve been stacked on the tomb Not classical ideas Twisted and contorted figures Adoration of the Shepherds Layering of people Everyone is in motion (energy) Crowed canvas Shortening of figures, not perfect Manipulating the contortions of the figures Colour palette is the late 16thcentury forms Study of the Reclining Boy Artist: Carracci Important because they were one of the first groups to form an academy to train people in art practice Depicts new subject matter Transition to older narratives Begin to go back and look at classical sculpture again, particularly Helonistic art Helonistic art shows ugly woman made wonderfully beautiful and dying scenes Group of Beggars Washy work Interesting creations Butcher Shop Daily life Halbadier Not everyday foot soldiers, royal guards Elite portrayal Contorted Trying to understand the body in motion Texture in the painting Building up the forms Pieta with Saints Francis and Clare Carracci Mary after his death Hanging arms Mary‘s left arm and Jesus‘ right arm Madonna and the Pesaro Family Italy, Flanders, & Spain (The Americas) September 26th Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571-1610) o Caravaggio  Francesco Sforza took care of him for a while  known for beginning of Baroque art  1584 began training (father not artist)  tied to guild system  dynamic character: 1600 criminal record, carried a sword & murdered a tennis opponent in 1607  circa 1592 in Rome  first public commission in 1598  working for Cardinal Francesco Maria del Monte  fantastic paintings  ends up in Spanish Naples where he produces great pieces of art  did not produce preparatory drawings unlike most people  early images portraying youthful makes: most models or studio assistants  moral overtures: devious behaviour, Flemish innovation  The Cardsharps, 1594, oil/canvas o all well dressed o young men o clothing has rips and tears (fault in identity) o cheaters o type of image popular at the time o tongue in cheek type of betrayal  Bacchus, 1595-96, oil/canvas o made for Cardinal himself o several half-length images o generically titled Bacchus o Bacchus is the god of wine and festivities o Bacchus typically portrayed as drunk and half naked o Bacchus is alone in picture o inviting us into the scene by handing viewer wine o creates intimacy, sexual engagement o unusual since woman were used to seduce o fruit = fertility o untying his robe with other hand o homoerotic o similar paintings: Boy with a Basket of Fruit (1583) & Boy Bitten by a Lizard (1596)  dramatic foreshortening  shows skill of Caravaggio  dramatic expression  Boy Bitten by a Lizard has historical longevity (widely recognized for skill and technique)  Rest on the Flight into Egypt (1594-5) oil/canvas o first religious work (not criticized for sexuality) o Joseph important during church reforms (Protestantism and colonialism) o parental involvement o by 1590‘s you have 100 years of explorations taking place, Africa explored, connections with a lot of places o Joseph really takes an active role, meant to show concept of family  Contarelli Chapel, S. Luigi dei Francesci, Rome o one of his BIG first commissions o large panels in chapel o chapel dedicated to St. Matthew o contract was quite specific o quiet contemplation  Tenebrism (gloom, darkness)  incorporates outside source  light: ―the way of light, the way of truth‖  true baroque idea  Calling of St. Matthew, 1599-1600, oil/canvas o first scene in the chapel o Tenebrism is very obvious o referring to Michelangelo‘s creation of Adam o intellectuals at the time would have recognized reference o light comes in and shines on Matthews face (his conversion) o Matthew still in modern attire since it is at his moment o coins and objects on table related to tax collecting (what Matthew did) o interesting how people are responding to moment (facial expressions) o Bacchus type of youth imagery o Christ and Peter are quickly recognized by Matthew o youths are more Baroque idealized o Peter, Matthew & Christ look like just normal people o CONTRAST between youth and Peter, Matthew & Christ o Counterreformation, these figures are made more real in order for people to relate to them  Martyrdom of St. Matthew, 1599-1602 o another moment of spiritual conversion and shows the last moment when the executer of Matthew realizes that he is like one of the God like figures o more dynamic composition st  The inspiration of St. Matthew, 1 version, 1602, oil/canvas (destroyed) & 2 nd version, 1602, oil/canvas o pieces very different o animosity towards painting on left which is destroyed is shown in black & white o first on rejected and Caravaggio was forced to redo it o shows too much sexuality in the first one o presentation of Matthew as almost illiterate, and the angels are telling him what to write o readable Hebrew text seen on bible o very innovation in creation of it o reflective of older traditions (angel floating in) o stool is falling out of frame into us (making a connection in second painting) o angels fingers are touching each other (counting which points he has covered while writing)  Conversion of St. Paul, 1601, oil/canvas o piece made part of larger contract o rejected, forced to repaint nd o 2 copy made on cypress wood o in 2 nd piece hard to see what happened to him o contrast of light and dark o in 1 piece he has arms up in air nd o juxtaposition of those involved (2 piece) o servant is checking up on horse, unaware of the spirituality of the event  Conversion and Crucifixion o asked to be hung upside down, unlike Christ o raising of the cross o struggle and agony o clean feet on Saint, rather than dirt on feet like executioners  Victorious Cupid, 1602, oil/canvas o Marches Giustiniani patron (owned 13 works) o laughing cupid, musical instruments, crowns, armor o everything works together to enhance male genitals in painting o right wing points to genitals, and well as object in left hand o sexualized nude make o ‗X‘ composition helps emphasize sexuality o similar to St. Bartholomew, Last Judgment, 1536-41, fresco, Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome o similar to St. John the Baptist  Death of the Virgin, 1601-2, oil/canvas o another painting criticized and rejected by patron o chapel in the Santa Maria della Scalla o Mary is represented as rustic o not idealized o She is very sad, and solemn  Entombment of Christ, 1603-4, oil/canvas o wasn‘t criticized o lots of recognition o image was for alter o moment Christ died o being placed in tomb o multiple figures present o 3 Mary‘s o counterreformation connection o Mary Magdalene is very expressionistic o finger going into womb of character holding him o mortality of Christ shown through that action o Christ‘s face looking up o since it was an image for alter, alter also acts as a tomb o drawn into painting when receiving body of Christ in church, becoming a participant when looking at painting  Michelangelo, Pieta o carved his name into sculpture so people who know it was by him o pity concept (same as Entombment of Christ) o Mary‘s hips are extremely large o firm foundation o she acts as an alter to hold Christ  Beheading St. John the Baptist, 1608, oil/canvas o signed by Caravaggio in blood o blood coming from John o Co-Cathedral of St. John o different style o widely liked  David with the Head of Goliath, 1609-10, oil/canvas o dating problems o collection of Cardinal Scipione Borghese o self portrait o closer to early works in design o traveled to Sicily o died before his pardon Caravaggio‘s Italian Followers o never had students that really stuck around o most were just followers o Orazio son of Pisan goldsmith  trained in Florence before going to Rome in 1577-78  moved to Genoa in 1621-23 before going through Paris to London where he remained in 1626  Caravaggio didn‘t really like him too much  Orazio emulated his style (main difference is colouring) o Orazio Gentileschi, The Rest on the Flight into Egypt, 1610, oil/canvas  typical subject matter  Christ is suckling  Joseph is sleeping  Joseph exhausted  several versions  new arrangement or just colour variations  Christ is shown very large o Orazio Gentileschi, Finding of Moses, 1633, oil/canvas  complicated painting  Philip IV of Spain in 1633  rich colours (dress and landscape)  right: sister Miriam watched over him and his mother (wet nurse for the pharaoh‘s daughter)  pharaoh‘s daughter points to his genitalia, Jewish baby o Artemisia Gentileschi (1593-1652/3)  more important than her father  mother: prudential montoni  1611 May 6, Rape by Agostino Tassi  1612 May 14, to November 28 Tassi trial  November 29 she marries Pierantonio  Susanna and the Elders, 1610, oil/canvas o signed by Artemisia o narrative of attempted seduction: bathing in her garden, men approach, demand sexual favors, rejects them o Susanna is a model of virtue, chastity, and martial fidelity o 16 th century temptress o similar to her father‘s painting: David slaying Goliath (one of the real Baroque images of David & Goliath) o Gentileschi VS. Tintoretto‘s Susanna and the Elders  different colouring  more interaction in Artemisia‘s painting  discreet in Tintoretto‘s  Artemisia‘s is more personal, you can feel what she is feeling and relate to her struggle with the men  Susanna in Tintoretto‘s shows more curiosity towards the men coming at her  Artemisia‘s Susanna is aggressively place in the front o Artemisia, Judith and Her Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes, 1625, oil/canvas  another version of the subject  at least 4 o Artemisia, Sleeping Venus, 1625-30, oil/canvas  painted many female nudes  patron unknown  more sexualized than others  cupid raises peacock feather to fan her o Artemisia, Self Portrait as the Allegory of Painting, 1630, oil/canvas  unusual in the sense of how it portraits self portrature  in the act of painting  can‘t tell what she is painting  personify painting o Adam Elsheimer, The Flight into Egypt, 1609 oil/copper  night scene  unheard of, only about 3 night paintings  contrast between light and dark  light source in foreground illuminating Mary & Joseph  ambiance Carracci Succession in Rome and Bologna   explored classical imagery and forms  artists and architectures figure out what the Roman‘s are all about  Roman‘s didn‘t follow just one set of guidelines  Domenichino, St. Cecilia Distributing the Alms, 1612-14, fresco  Commissioned: Polet Chapel in San Luigi dei Francesi (Carrivaggio painted Contarelli Chapel)  her ascension into heaven  refusal to sacrifice to non-Christian idols, martyrdom  one of the most well preserved  tried to be martyred many times, but because of divine circumstances didn‘t work  Distribution of Alms painting  relics in Rome  juxtaposition of fabrics and materials  marriage chest at top  individuals on street grabbing materials  contrast between Roman inspired architecture to foreground space  figures twisted creates engagement with viewers  Domenichino, Last Communion of St. Jerome, 1614, oil/canvas  Commissioned for San Girolamo dell Carita  based on Agostino‘s Carracci (copied)  did this in order to help in receive a commission  images are flipped  space between Jerome and priest  emphasis becomes the bread for communion  tied into being the body of Christ  richness of the colours create a darker contrast to the white piece of bread (Domenichino)  he makes a parallel to angelic form  more effective than Caracci‘s  Domenichino, Archery Contest  unusual scene  developed on his own  not a common subject  dealing with archery contest & goddess Diana  she is the main figure above  showing a type of creativity and new interest in new subject and narratives  several figures can be related to Roman sarcophagi  Domenichino, Vault of the Tribune, 1625-27, fresco  sequence of monumental scenes  related to Peter & Andrew  spent 3 years at the church  he painted along side Lanfranco  had accused him of plagiarism  complex foreshortending and angles  convex surface that he moves across and has to paint figures in space, not an easy task  twisting and spiraling figures  subjects straight forward  no hidden iconography  Giovanni Lanfranco, Virgin and Child  was his rival  painted much different than Domenichino  straightforward panting  Giovanni Lanfranco, Assumption of the Virgin  based on Correggio‘s painting  Correggio‘s ceiling was very well known and influential at the time  Guido Reni, Crucifixtion of St. Peter, 1604-5, oil/canvas  Classical artist trained with Carracci  Classical style  Hallmark of style  Nice contrast of light and dark  Tinebrism of Carrivaggio  stable composition  however, uneasy to appoint  early roman public commission  Peter had to be crucified upside down, so wasn‘t the same as Christ  Guido Reni, The Annunciation, 1609-11, oil/canvas  series of images relatd to the Virgin Mary  traditional  Madonna kneeling  Guido Reni, Aurora, 1614, fresco  easel painting on ceiling  Apollo guided by Aurora  represented in stable, rich composition  almost opposite of that of Bacchus  Guido Reni, Virgin and Child with Patron Saints  imagery that deals with community  issues being addressed  older tradition having groups in sacred conversation  Guido Reni, Cardinal Bernardino Spada, 1630-31, oil/canvas  one of his full length portrait  typical Bolognese style  typical to see model engaging in task that they are known for (like a monk working on a religious writing)  Guido Reni, The Abduction of Helen, 1631, oil/canvas  Philip IV (of Spain)  Helen doesn‘t resist  no interest in eroticism  Paris (Trojan priest) holds hands  black child  early reference to servitude  child is represented as servant  Guido Reni, The Archangel Michael, 1635, oil/silk  rich colours  one that is dealing with popular religious figures  warrior saint  tied into issues of conquering the devil & sin  expressionistic  associated with noble orders  here uses color and contrast and materials to contrast good and evil  Guido Reni, Ecce Homo, 1640  devotional painting  used to reflect about trials and tribulations of Christ  simple & serene  no narrative content  encourage mediation  Guercino, Erminia Discovering the Wounded Tancred, 1618, oil/canvas  dramatic presentation  has to engage with figures  Guercino, Aurora, 1621  ceiling has been broken down to look like images ascent into heaven  different presentation  different that Reni  dramatic illusionistic ceiling  Guercino, The Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine Baroque Italy October 3rd Roman Developments o in Rome major work carried out under Alexander VII (1655-67)  Pietro da Cortona o civility equated to the uniform characteristics of urban environments  ordered to chaos – good vs. sin o important theories by Vitruvius, New Jerusalem, and new cultures o additionally by reordering cities, individuals who could afford to exert such pressure and resources were seen to have high prestige and influence upon society Architecture and City Planning o major development relating to urban development  numerous treatises on architecture produced based on Vitruvius  important set of urban policies created o laws of the indies o relate to the foundations of new towns in the Americas o influences major rebuilding programs of European cities o Pietro da Cortona, Santa Maria della Pace, Rome, 1656, engraving  commissioned for Santa Maria della Pace  pilgrimage church to Madonna of Peace  challenging location (bad intersection)  Baroque features o convex façade – most Renaissance facades were flat o segmented arch that breaks the surface  not a lot of statuary  temple looking front  double pediment (rounded and triangular forms)  structure projects out  soft molding of forms above Francesco Borromini o one of the most famous of Baroque architects  Carlo Maderno,(G.L. Bernini and Francesco Borromini, Palazzo Barberini, Rome, 1628-33  all 3 worked on façade o Borromini, San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome  bad location  new to Baroque design  outside façade and interior space don‘t always compliment each other  creation of visual forms to create energy  creates the façade into the building itself  the dome is supported by other smaller semi-domes  in interior can see progression of shapes on exterior  interior/exterior conceived as whole based on Roman language  composite style (?)  giant order (2 story columns/pilliars) Italian Sculpture o Giambologna, Rape of the Sabine Women, 1580-82  not just one viewing perspective  not Baroque, but influential for period  main focus is on the movement of the image  tight spiral running through the figures  complex work (cuts, and grooves) o Bernini  most famous in Baroque period  maintained production through his numerous church commissions  subjects ranged from Christian imagery to that of ancient gods and goddesses  Bernini, Aeneas, Achises, and Ascanius, 1618-19 o 1 in series o Bernini & Giambologna  Bernini best seen at one perspective while other can be looked at from all views  shift in contraposto  Bernini makes marble seem soft like real flesh o Bernini‘s David  unlike Michelangelo‘s David, he is in action  about to let sling shot go  Baroque is about energy and expression  basing piece on antiquity  COMPLETELY different than Donatello  Donatello‘s is more youthful, elegant  less defined and not as muscular o Bernini well known for his portraits (sculpture)  bust portrait  Cardinal Scipione Borghese, 1632  fine dressed  sculpted many popes  **what makes these sculptures effective for portraiture?** o looking up o gives a sense of station and standing o drapery hides sharp angles, critical! o hides awkward angles so doesn‘t just look like marble bust is placed weird o creates a little bit of composition o gives figures more of a naturalism o not static o easier to look at and understand o Algardi  competed with Bernini o Bernini, Tomb of Alexander VII, 1671-8  faces alter  death (skeleton coming for him)  charity (left)  truth cradles sun (right)  originally nude  justice and prudence  labor intensive  marble fabric draped over skeleton  interesting power o Alessandro Algardo, Pope Leo I Driving Attila from Rome (not that important)  most expensive commission o Bernini, Cornaro Chapel, Rome (important)  really engaging  spectacular  perfect example of what is a dynamic baroque sculpture/norm is  overall composition is important  up above (elevated position)  pure theatrics: chapel transferred into a stage  basic structure: referencing a church façade partially, within a transcept, gallery space to sit in front and on the sides to make it look stage like (theatrical)  elevated up on platform  golden rods coming up from around sculpture  main focal paint illuminated because uses real window behind golden rods to bring in natural light  theatrical space  enhances spiritual experience  experience quite complex however o Bernini, Ecstacy of st teresa, 1645-52, marble, Cornaro Chapel  hallmark of the chapel is Teresa and the angel  spiritual experience important  piercing heart of st. teresa with his love  describing sexual experience  penetrated over and over again until pleasure (moment of ectascy)  spiritual experience related to physical  angel happy to be helping her along with her journey o Bernini, trioton fountain  fountains really important  without fountains didn‘t have fresh water  Bernini known for making fountains  tapping into wells o Bernini, Four Rivers Fountain  enhanced by image of Noah up above  main focus is around the four rivers seen represented  global environment (images of other parts of world) o Nile river o Danube (important for trade) o Ganges (Asia) o Plata (America) (Amazon river)  did not know source of Nile  palm tree coming out of Nile  large imagery with reptiles, horses, etc  complicated narrative  nice aesthetics  engages kids today Painting in Rome October 10th End of Italy… o Pietro da Cortona, Sta. Bibiana Refusing to Sacrifice to Pagan Idols  typically recognizes standards of proportion of classical architecture  frieze above in right corner which connects upper part across, doesn‘t necessarily belong however he still works with it o Cortona, Triumph of Bacchus  based on Titan‘s Bacchanal  epitomizes the coloring and forms of Baroque era  how to tell if a painting is Baroque & not renaissance o active (action of figures, not just posing)  Titian‘s piece creates a different type of aesthetics o really compressed of foreground o background not suppose to contribute to narrative  Cortona puts figures in a more complex space o narrative extends back o weird mixing of forms and figures o nymphs, and strange looking human/goat figure with demonic face o calculated presentation that is still fun o unexpected post of naked man in left corner reaching over other figure o narrative of body in motion o Cortona, Rape of the Sabine Women  moment of abduction  Romulus orders seizure of Sabine women  retelling of narrative  Romulus giving symbol of ‗Ok‘ from above left/middle  unusually because they are all clothed  break from naked narrative  during counterreformation, started covering up nudes, what was deemed as decent portions then had to be dressed  presented in a more reserved way  Cortona always get some sense of a background o Cortona, Martyrdom of St. Lawrence  breaks away from tradition, he is clothed o Cortona, Allegory of Divine Providence  one of his most important  self representation and glorification
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