3388 sport psych.doc

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Visual Arts History
Visual Arts History 3386F/G
Maria Ferraro

Monday January 16, 2012 Science vs. Common sense: Theory Development 1. Building of theories Common sense - Biased, sometimes illogical explanations Science - Systematically developed on basis of repeated observations 2. Testing of Theories Common sense - Often in a selective fashion Science - Tested in a systematic empirical fashion 3. Concept of control Common Sense - Often confuse, correlated with causes Science – research design leads to confidence about test results 4. Search for relationships Common Sense – generally satisfied with simple explanations Science – preoccupied with search for complex interrelationships (moderators/mediators) 5. Explanations Used Common Sense – Tendency to use metaphysical explanations Science – Interest is solely in testable proposition Scientific Process • The greatest virtue of (humankind) is perhaps curiosity • Stage 1: Idea generation (curiosity) o Ex. Mother: “There are 25 people on my daughters minor hockey team, I wonder if there are too many?” • Stage 2: Hypothesis Generation (closely linked to idea generation) o Ex. Mother: “I predict/expect/hypothesize that my daughter is not going to enjoy hockey • Stage 2: Hypothesis Testing (developing an eperational definition for the main variable) o Ex. Team size: count number of team members on a number of different team o Enjoyment: ask athletes on those teams to rate their enjoyment on a 9- point scale • Stage 2: Replication (testing hypothesis again with same sample or other samples) o Ex. Test 20 year old athletes/test other skill levels Research Protocols for Sport Groups Non-experimental Protocol • No attempt to influence participant response 1. Archival Studies: Researcher uses data already collected and stored; egl home advantage research 2. Participant Observation Studies: Researcher (as part of the group) records group’s dynamics 3. In-depth interviews: Researcher presents participants with series of open-ended questions: eg sources of conflict in sport teams 4. Field Studies: Researcher makes observations in a natural environment eg/ John Wooden as coach 5. Correlation Studies: Participants complete two types of questionnaires and relationship between them examined; eg. Role clarity and satisfaction Experimental Protocols • Participants
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