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Visual Arts History
Visual Arts History 3387F/G
Cody Barteet

The Victorian Period September 18th Eclecticism, Arts and Crafts, Aestheticism Design during the Victorian Period o 221B Baker Street: Sherlock Holmes Museum (London, England) example of a fictional interior from 1881-1904  invented a Victorian interior  brought fictional character to life  burgundy flocked wallpaper (velvet pattern)  velvet upholstery  rich oriental rug  dark red colours  mustard colour and dark red is a Victorian colour combination  mantle with many objects and a clock  overstuffed chairs  chlostrophobic (Victorians liked to collect things)  narrative details included in room which represented Sherlock Homes  each object is arranged specifically to tell a story o Paxton, Crystal Palace, 1851  erected in Hyde Park  would house exhibition  palace was expected to be removed after end of exhibition and not ruin any trees in the park while being built  supports were made out of iron  modular building  glass panels were added  greenhouse feel  industrial structure o exhibition-goers, 1851  had ‘cheap’ days where lower class could go  wealthy and poor didn’t mix well in public  democratization in interest of design  both classes could enjoy the same thing  people becoming consumers o Pugin’s Medieval Court, 1851  high gothic spires  elongated sculptures  draperies  church-like interior o rise of interior design books  Hints on Household Taste, 1868/72 and Eastlake furniture c. 1860- 80s  houses were responsibility of women, therefore they were in charge of design  writers would direct manuals to women  machine-like decoration would be applied to furniture to create a floral pattern  stylistic variety o stylistic variety of household goods: different piano styles o William Morris and Edward Burne-Jones, 1874  became interested in aesthetics  spent 9 months as an apprentace after graduating from oxford  married a servant, cut off from middle class family o Philip Webb, The Red House, 1860  perky style  round rose windows  hooded windows  medieval like influences  irregularity  tries to create an exterior that’s unpredictable  welcoming design  stairwell surrounded by oak and plaster  stairwell has a church pew look  added a brick overhang at the top  Morris wallpapers and stained glass o Daisies o Strawberry thief o Rabbit o Michaelmas daisy o Wandle o William Morris and Co. Green Dining Room in the Victoria and Albert Museum, 1866  influential example of design for young artists  classic Victorian walls (high)  floral wallpapers (filler)  very detailed  animal border around ceiling o Oscar Wilde at the time of his American Tour  Lectured on a book by Clarence Cook, The House Beautiful (first published in 1877 with many subsequent editions)  enjoyed interior design  Interior design book o (page in book) blue and white tile around fire place o oriental rug o detailed objects on mantle o convex mirror above fire place which creates an interesting space o Japanese fans brought into interior o Christopher Dresser: Insect Vases, 1870 and Wedgewood Caneware Vase, 1867  ornamental vases  using insect motifs  derived from Japanese insect design  uses bones of birds to create design o C.F.A Voysey, Moorcrag  house in Northern England  steep pitched roofs  house looks out to nature  interior design includes natural and floral motfifs o George Aitchison, Leighton House, 1869-1896  red brick  elaborate exterior  interior (studio) restored today o burgundy walls o domed wall on front wall  Arab hall, 1872 by Leighton o wanted to build in his extensive collection of Arab tiles, motifs, etc. o traveled a lot, wanted to display his artifacts o hall located in the front o detailed and colourful o included artifacts in design o tiles o gold accents o rectangular fountain: each corner represents water, air, fire, growth or north, east, south, west o stain glass brought from 16 thcentury palaces, temples, etc. o mosaics on the floor o woodwork on windows o custom design chandelier th o 16 century tiles from Syria o 17 thcentury stained glass from Damascus  Walter Crane Frieze, c. 1881-2 o Animal symbolism o Cranes, mythical creatures o Represents religious elements o Linley Sambourne House 1874  road/common house  Sambourne family transformed the house to have a middle class interior  added modern stain glass  gave house more colour and patterning  drawing room o blue and white china plates lining upper half o oriental rugs o looks like 221B Baker Street house o stain glass windows o rich polish of furniture o lots of bronze sculptures o Victorian fern plant o pictures are hung: jammed in together  morning room o where women of house would entertain o lighter and more feminine o special mantle piece with many objects o Japanese image on fire screen o tiles on side of fire place o Indian table to the right side o polished solid wooden furniture o would be a public room like the drawing room Arts & Crafts & Art Nouveau September 25th Aestheticism (Arab Hall & Peacock Room = good examples) o Whistler, Peacock Room, 1876-77  controversy  the dining room of Fredrick Leyland  London town house  shelves designed by Thomas Jeckyll  bought painting by JMW Whistler (Princess from the Land of Porcelain, oil, 1863-65)  painting was influenced by Japanese design  wanted to modify room  Whistler redid room: added peacock panel designs  peacock was a symbol of Whistler and aestheticism  fills shelves with decorative objects  paints 2 peacocks fighting on large wall (to symbolism Whister & Leyland fighting over Whister’s design that he created in the room while he was away)  Peacock Room was moved to Freer gallery in Washington DC  flat peacock motifs: flat and stylized which matches the patterns on porcelain design o Gamble House, 1908  Proctor & Gamble  American house (California)  sensible, well constructed house  Green brothers (craftsman)  built out of local materials  open air sleeping porches (took beds outside in summer when hot)  overhanging roofs (seen in Japanese design)  long rectangular chimneys  use of wood  porch light has an overhang  everything is designed to fit together and compliment each other  stained glass  red cedar  built in wood furniture  a lot of windows (flow-through lighting)  greens, golds, ambers (drawn from nature)  furniture customized by the Green brothers for the house  simple furniture  family had strong work ethic, therefore high back chairs (no padded chairs which would aid in slouching)  step-like banister  perfect carpentry  area in front of fire place is very ‘cozy’ which is typical of arts & crafts houses o Roycroft Crafts Community: East Aurora, New York State 1895-1938  Hubbard & Family  blacksmith, print shop, chapel, inn  arts & crafts community  unified sense that turns houses into gems  oak, lots of wood used  stained glass accents Art Nouveau o Serpentine Dance, Lumiere Brothers, 1899  skirt dancer  had sticks in skirts and twirled them around on stage to create a wave look (butterfly or moth effect) o Metro Stations  Hector Guimard, Paris Metro as an example of exaggerated organic forms (1895)  flowing and linear  curves and swirls  roof is glass: looks like iron and glass used in crystal pala
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