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Lecture 010 - Pop Art - New Meanings and Media for Sculptural Figures.docx

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Women's Studies
Women's Studies 2158A/B
Sonia Halpern

Lecture 010 – Pop Art: New Meanings and Media for Sculptural Figures November 20, 2012 - Final exam same format as mid-term o Not cumulative Outline I) Pop Art a) Definition b) Image of Women by Male Pop Artists c) Images of Women by Female Pop Artists II) Marisol III) Niki De Saint Phalle IV) Conclusion Pop Art - Artistic movement that ran from 1956 – - Started in Great Britain then moved to the US, particularly NY - Considered an urban movement, big city kind of movement - Short form for popular art; art that is based on popular culture - Anything that was appealing to the mass market; anything that was popular in the society of the 1950s and 1960s, pop art was influenced by it – comic books, TV shows, grocery items, etc. o Will incorporate these kinds of things in their artwork - Loved the idea of a person or thing that was immediately recognizable - Loved consumerist items Campbell’s Soup Cans (Andy Warhol, 1961 - 1962) - See the red and white cans the same way you would at a grocery store - Trying to blur the distinction between what was considered high art in the past and what was seen in everyday life - Pop art not well-received by conventional art critics o No separation between high art and everything else; critics kind of elitist in this way, wanted fine art to be in its own category - By interconnecting advertising and consumerism with high art, they felt it was minimizing the status of high art - Public’s response to pop art was well-received, because they could relate; everyone recognized it - Critics argued that most people have really bad taste; so something must be wrong with pop art - No abstract pop art because it must represent something that people can recognize Marilyn Monroe Diptych (Andy Warhol, 1962) - Diptych – a work done in two parts - Did this in the year that Marilyn Monroe died; found dead with an empty bottle of pills beside her - Whole world mourned loss; coloured images on the left highly saturated like a comic book - One of the reasons why Warhol liked to show repetitious images was he liked to show mass production; in pop culture, there is never just one of something made, there is a hundred of the same product, suggesting the same idea with mass consumerism - Pop art not a criticism of society; humourous, whimsical style that didn’t take itself too seriously - Male artists influenced by pornography; female artists not influenced by this at all - Pornography in the 1950s and 60s was a consumed product by the men during this generation; men had access to it through pornographic magazines - Trend of male artists was to include their influence of pornography as part of their love for pop culture - As the years passed, these male artists’ works seemed to get more hard-core, more intense; maybe due to the culture immunity of these images over time Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Homes So Different, So Appealing (Hamilton, 1956) - Collage; artist has cut out different imagery from different sources and has glued them together to create one unified image - Can see references to consumerism; comic book on the wall making comparison to high art, that both can be considered high art - Ford Hood Ornament attached to lamp, recognizable - Canned ham functioning almost as a sculpture - Tootsie pop - Relateable to everybody - Allusion to pornographic imagery through the figures in the work - Woman would have been taken out of some kind of pornographic magazine; sexualized image of the woman Miss Cornflakes (Ramos, 1964) - Would incorporate images of women; women themselves become the item to be consumed - Love immediacy of recognisability of ‘Kellogg’s’ - Husk represents layers being peeled away; similar to finding prize in the cereal box - Bow in hair to emphasize her youth; popular culture is connected to youth o Very different context compared to how Valdon use bow in her work - Gaze shows she is a willing participant - Seductiveness to the way her hand is stroking the husk of corn - Combining innocence of youth with the experience of age - Shape of the corn itself is a very phallic image, contributing to the sexualisation of her - Influenced by “pin-up” type Chaquita (Ramos, 1964) - Banana represents phallic association - Banana can be peeled back; surprise inside Val Veeta (Ramos, 1965) - No peeling idea; but Velveeta box functions as a surface that she can lie on; no difference between her and the reclining Venus pose – she’s nude, she’s reclining, and she’s got an inviting gaze - Colouring of her body makes her look like a hunk of cheese - Takes on idea of woman being consumed visually and replacing hunk of cheese; she becomes the product Chair #2 (Jones, 1969) - Made of mixed media - Influenced by sex magazines that catered to the advertising of selling erotic paraphernalia - Referencing BDSM subculture - Meant to be somewhat humourous in a pop art context; but from a feminist point of view, it does become kind of disturbing - Objectifying women, making them appear to only serve - Mannequins serve a dual purpose; look beautiful, not really individualized, can’t personalize them – all pretty much look the same - Women who don’t speak; look great and don’t talk - Very powerful and appealing combination for some men Table #2 (Jones, 1969) - Looking at herself in the mirror and gives everybody else permission to look at her o Becom
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