September 27, 2011
- Describe actions, states of being
-Transitive verbs: refer to a direct object: He drinks Ol’ Crawdad.
-Intransitive verbs: don’t refer to a direct object: He drinks heavily (heavily = adverb)
-When a verb is before a preposition it’s an intransitive verb (He drinks before class, before =
-States of being: Our textbook is informative.
- Linking verbs: to be, to feel, to seem.
- Do not function as verbs. They look like verbs and are derived from verbs but they don’t serve
the same function
-Smoking gives life.
-Subject: Smoking, Verb: gives, Object: life
- Gerunds: Words that derive from verbs but function like nouns. End in “ing”.
- Smoking is a gerund in this sentence.
- Three types of verbals: Participles, Past Participles, Infinitives.
- Participles always function as adjectives.
Participles: A verb form functioning as an adjective
The smoking gun lay on the table.
- On the table: prepositional phrase
- Smoking is an adjective in this sentence.
Past Participles: end in ‘ed’; smoked.
The smoked fish was delicious.
- We can see that ‘smoked’ isn’t the verb here.
Infinitive: a phrase that consists of the preposition ‘to’ and the basic form of the
-Can function as nouns: To smoke is to live. (‘to live’ is subject complement’ and infinitive)
-Can function as adjectives: Londoners assume the right to laugh at pedestrians.
- “to laugh” = infinitive as an adjective
-Can function as an adverb: I dress shabbily to look like an intellectual.
I took Writing 2121 to learn grammar.
- I am describing the verbal.
- “am describing” is auxiliary verb.
Active Construction: has a grammatical subject that is acting
Passive Construction: has a grammatical subject that is being acted upon
- Know how to identify passive construction and change it to an active one. Passive:
-The garden gnomes were destroyed by vandals
-The garden gnomes aren’t doing anything so the subject is passive
- The verb consists of two words “were destroyed” and destroyed is past tense.
- The actual agen