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WR2121 Lecture September 27: Verbs, Expletives, Participial Phrases, etc.

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Writing 2121F/G
Tim Freeborn

September 27, 2011 Verbs - Describe actions, states of being -Transitive verbs: refer to a direct object: He drinks Ol’ Crawdad. -Intransitive verbs: don’t refer to a direct object: He drinks heavily (heavily = adverb) -When a verb is before a preposition it’s an intransitive verb (He drinks before class, before = preposition) -States of being: Our textbook is informative. - Linking verbs: to be, to feel, to seem. Verbals - Do not function as verbs. They look like verbs and are derived from verbs but they don’t serve the same function -Smoking gives life. -Subject: Smoking, Verb: gives, Object: life - Gerunds: Words that derive from verbs but function like nouns. End in “ing”. - Smoking is a gerund in this sentence. - Three types of verbals: Participles, Past Participles, Infinitives. - Participles always function as adjectives. Participles: A verb form functioning as an adjective The smoking gun lay on the table. - On the table: prepositional phrase - Smoking is an adjective in this sentence. Past Participles: end in ‘ed’; smoked. The smoked fish was delicious. - We can see that ‘smoked’ isn’t the verb here. Infinitive: a phrase that consists of the preposition ‘to’ and the basic form of the verb. -Can function as nouns: To smoke is to live. (‘to live’ is subject complement’ and infinitive) -Can function as adjectives: Londoners assume the right to laugh at pedestrians. - “to laugh” = infinitive as an adjective -Can function as an adverb: I dress shabbily to look like an intellectual. I took Writing 2121 to learn grammar. - I am describing the verbal. - “am describing” is auxiliary verb. Active Construction: has a grammatical subject that is acting Passive Construction: has a grammatical subject that is being acted upon - Know how to identify passive construction and change it to an active one. Passive: -The garden gnomes were destroyed by vandals -The garden gnomes aren’t doing anything so the subject is passive - The verb consists of two words “were destroyed” and destroyed is past tense. - The actual agen
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