Writing 2121F/G Lecture Notes - Dependent Clause, Apposition, Semicolon
October 11, 2011
-Links main clauses
-Separate items in a list
-I drink coffee; he drinks tea.
-wrong: Although I drink coffee; he drinks tea
-because “although I drink coffee” is a subordinate clause
Dickens’s most memorable characters include Uriah Heap, an unctuous clerk;
Sloppy, a gifted mimic; and Dick Swiveller, a failed playboy.
- appositive phrase: “an unctuous clerk, a gifted mimic, a failed playboy”
-use semi colons to separate items in the list when each item contains internal punctuation (the
comma that separates the appositive phrase from the noun it renames.) Internal punctuation is
when a comma is used not to link another point or phrase but it links something related to the
-I and my family went to the Bighead River, which was muddy; the Beaver Valley
Motel, which was overpriced; and Raper’s Park, which was unfortunately named.
-Use a colon to introduce a list, appositive phrase or quotation.
-Use a colon after a main clause
-List: The daily routine should include the following: three scotch-and-sodas, fifty
cigarettes, and ten cups of coffee.
-Appositive: My roommate was guilty of two of the Seven Deadly Sins: sloth and
-because it’s an appositive phrase we know we can use a comma to introduce the
appositive element. If the appositive appears at the end of the sentence you can also use
-Quotation: when the word group introducing the quote is a main clause
-Consider the words of the typical English graduate student: “Welcome to
-Dickens’s most memorable characters include the following: Uriah Heap, an
unctuous clerk; Sloppy, a gifted mimic; and Dick Swiveller, a failed playboy.
How Not to Use the Colon
-Some important punctuation marks are: the comma, the colon, and the semicolon.
-“Some important punctuation marks are” is not a main clause, so it can’t have a colon
-The quiz will consist of: questions related to punctuation.
-Neither one of the word groups is a main clause.
-The preposition “of” can not be separated from its object.
-No colons after prepositions.
-I love WR2121; however, the textbook seems like it was written for high-school
-The important info in a sentence should appear in the main clause, the ideas of secondary
importance in a subordinate clause
-Two main clauses:
-Grandmother lost her sight. Her hearing sharpened.
-Both can stand alone as grammatically complete sentences but we want to link them.
-Grandmother lost her sight(,)(;)but her hearing sharpened.
-This means that they are both of equal importance if you use a comma or
semicolon. But what if you want to emphasize one over the other?
-Although Grandmother lost her sight, her hearing sharpened.
-main clause is not the subordinate conjunction, but “her hearing sharpened”
-As her hearing sharpened, Grandmother lost her sight.
-main clause is “grandmother lost her sight”
-Turn sentences into subordinate clause, appositive phrase or participial phrase (opportunities
-Ezra Pound was an important American poet. He created several styles of
-Appositive phrase: Ezra Pound, an important American poet, created several
styles of free verse.
-The man who greeted Bob wore a red vinyl jacket covered with zippers. He
was an unattractive figure.
-Participial phrase: Wearing a red vinyl jacket covered with zippers, the man
who greeted Bob was an unattractive figure.
Parallelism (most important)
-Stylistically the most important aspect of writing we’ll work on. Faulty parallelisms will show
the lack of development in a writer. If reader sees a faulty parallelism, they will know you’re
not that good.
-Parallelism: putting ideas in the same grammatical form.
-Pairs with a coordinate conjunction: In WR2121, failure to do the assigned reading will
result in suspension or even being expelled from school.
-Find the coordinate conjunction: “or” points to elements that are being coordinated,
can be put into the same furm.
-“suspension” = noun, “being expelled” needs to be changed to “expulsion”
-In WR2121, failure to do the assigned reading will result in suspension or
even expulsion from school.
-Pairs with a correlative conjunction: Not only do I like Samuel Delaney’s science
fiction novels, but I also like his transgressive allegories as well.
-“as well” doesn’t have to be there, redundant.
-I like not only Samuel Delaney’s science-fiction novels but also his
-Many smokers try switching to a brand that they find distasteful or a low-tar
-“to a brand that they find distasteful” “low tar cigarette” To make these elements the same you
need to add “to”
-Many smokers try switching to a brand that they find distasteful or to a low-tar
-He said that two-hour classes are too long and that the instructor’s voice is