- will discuss one subject that is identified in the topic sentence.
-distinguish between your opinion and someone else’s opinion; don’t take someone elses
opinion as your own.
- evidence needs to be factual
- evidence needs to be asserted in following sentences
-Multi Level Paragraphs contain assertions and statements of fact. Assertions are found in
topic sentences, assessments of evidence, concluding statements. Statements of fact:
introductions of evidence and the evidence itself (even when you quote someone else’s
argument, its status in your paragraph is factual: whether you agree with it or not, it remains a
statement attributable to a source.)
- so other’s opinions are fine evidence
- Maintain coherence by:
- repeating key words/using synonyms
October 25, 2011
- Word choice will be influenced by your perception of your audience and your purpose.
- 1. Use technical words with care. Use them with awareness of your audience.
- 2. Avoid pretentious language. Unnecessarily ornate, polysyllabic, etc.
- 3. Avoid informal words in formal classes. (slang) idomatic expressions are figurative in
nature. You can’t treat the words as literal descriptors, there’s a figurative dimension. “ I went
medieval on his ass” > what does this mean?
- “The test is geared towards punctuation” becomes “The test is about/involves punctuation.” No
-Avoid metaphorical expressions like The quiz is geared towards punctuation.
- “Target audience”. The adjective is metaphorical. “Intended audience” is better. Non
metaphorical expression that conveys the same thing.
- Euphemism: A figure of speech that attempts to cover up an unpleasant reality. “He passed
away” is a euphemism for dying. “adult entertainment” for pornography.
- Cliche: a word or phrase we don’t even realize as being figurative, it’s overused. Figurative
language is colourful but not very accurate. “roller coaster ride”. A cliched film, not “a cliche
Common Essay Errors
November 1, 2011
- The film horrified its viewers.
- The film’s love scenes horrified its viewers.
- The films’ love scenes horrified its viewers.
- Sophecles’s love scenes horrified it’s viewers = correct
- Jesus’ love scenes horrified it’s viewers = also correct -’s forms the possessive
Avoid putting quotation marks to change the tone or use sarcasm. Don’t do “The film was
Hyphen and Dash
The hypen - is used to link words
The dash -- is
twentieth century literature = twentieth-century literature
both adjectives are needed to describe literature
Don’t use a hyphen if you can get rid of one of the words and have it make sense still.
- The jack in the box toy = The jack-in-the-box-toy
- All words (jack in the box) are necessary
-Zippy is a comic strip.
- Zippy is a comic strip character = Zippy is a comic-strip character. You can’t say “Zippy is a
strip character” so they need to be hyphenated.
- My high-school teacher seems distracted.
- My high school teacher seems distracted.
- Both of “high” and “school” are needed. If you don’t have the hyphen, it becomes “My high
teacher seems distracted” or “My high (drugged up) school teacher seems distracted”
- High-school has a hyphen.
- The well-known author avoided Western.
- Exception: Verbs that end in ly are not hyphenated
- The incredibly gifted writer avoided Western.
- Dash is used to offset sentence elements in a sentence.
-Bob Clarke, who won two Stanley Cups and three Hart Trophies between 1974 and 1976, was
the greatest hockey player of the 1970’s.
- You could also replace the commas with dashes.
- In essays, search for “this” when you’re all done. ‘this’ needs to be followed by a noun. How is
the pronoun “this” most commonly misused? :
- Retirement-home ads use sex to attract tenants. This is the reason why I moved to
- A noun doesn’t follow this so it’s not right.
- Correct: This strategy is the reason why I moved to Cherryhill.
- Which must have a noun before it for the sake of clarity.
- Hoar critcizes Korine’s lack of originality in scoring the film, which reveals Hoar’s
misunderstanding of the function of music to illuminate key motifs.
- Which does not refer to the film, but Hoar’s misunderstanding.
- Find an appropriate noun to put where film is so which will make sense. - Or turn the subordinate clause into a second main clause: Hoar criticizes Korine’s lack
of originality in scoring the film. In so doing, Hoar misunderstands the function of
music to illuminate key motifs.
Unnecessary Wordiness ; Expletive Constructions
- Limit use of “to be” verbs and eliminate expletive Constructions. Expletives are circled on
- Get rid of using “There is” and “There are” (and “It is” sometimes). Sometimes it is works.
- I have a favourite class. It is WR 2121. It is is referring to the class.
- Expletive Construction
-There is not one scene in Polyester that I can show to my mother. EXPLETIVE