Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (630,000)
Western (60,000)
Writing (200)
2121F/G (20)

Writing 2121F/G Lecture Notes - Interdisciplinarity, Irene Gammel, New Criticism

Course Code
Writing 2121F/G
Tim Freeborn

of 3
November 22, 2011 Lecture
Citing Sources Responsibly
-Summaries (of the 2 academic articles)
-report the main idea of the work
-will open by naming the title and author of the work
-will be concise (1-2 sentences)
-will be in your own words (no quotations)
-In “An Open Letter to the Students of Harvard” Camille Paglia claims that the
humanities departments of major American universities have been ruined by venal
professors interested more in career advancement than scholarship, advises students to
avoid trendy and befuddling poststructuralist criticism and calls for unified, multi
disciplinary faculty of humanities.
-will deal with a specific section of a larger work
-will be in your own words: you must change both the diction and the syntax of the
-will open with a signal phrase that identifies the author or source
-will conclude with a parenthetical citation
-Recent studies place the Baroness’s work at the centre of American modernism. Irene
Gammel suggests that the Baroness created the sculpture “God”, a sculpture previously
attributed to Morton Schaumberg. Moreover, Gammel speculates that the work,
fashioned from a plumbing fixture, directly influenced Duchamp’s seminal work
“Fountain” (56).
-underlined signal phrase
-will open with signal phrase identifying the author
-will close with parenthetical citation
-will transcribe the source accurately
-will be integrated into the sentence in a grammatically correct manner
-When to Quote
-When the language is particularly expressive, vivid, or resistant to effective paraphrase:
-Paglia describes Derrida as a “Gloomy Gus one-trick pony, stuck on a rhetorical trope
already available in the varied armory of New Criticism” (241)
-Aim for balance between paraphrase and quotation
-When you are working with a definition central to your essay:
-Leir defines “nihilism” as “an ethos of a Russian intellectual movement in the 1860’s”,
“An insistence that one should not believe in anything that could not be demonstrated
to be true. “ In itself he adds it should not connote…
-Quote when allowing debaters to state their positions in their own words
-Mackinnon and Dworkin describe pornography as “hate literature” stating that it
promotes “bigotry and contempt” and fosters “acts of aggression” (2); in contrast,
Paglia regards pornography as a “pagan arena of beauty, vitality, and brutality, of the
archaic vigor of nature” noting that it “represents absolute freedom of imagination, as
envisioned by the Romantic poets” (111)
-Always quote when the language is subject of your analysis
-Keene’s adverbs establish nancy’s confidence and independence: the teenage detective
backed her car “quickly” to the road, drove “swiftly” to the store, and navigated
“skillfully” through the congested streets (The Secret of the Old Clock 13).
-How to Quote
-Quote judiciously, selecting only the necessary words, phrases and sentences:
-Paglia condemns French theory as “phony, obfuscatory, [and] elitist,” and she
describes American scholars who endorse that work as an “amoral coterie”
-Always integrate quotations with your own words, if only by introducing author in
signal phrase
-We must take into consideration our contemporary understanding of the
protagonist’s name. Ann Thwaite explains “In common usage the word
“Fauntleroy” suggests a mollycoddled namby-pamby, a mother’s darling, an
overdressed pig, a sissy, a child too good to be true” (v).
-Integrate quotes in a manner that is gramattically correct
-Irene Gammel describes 1908 as a pivotal year in the life of Elsa’s companion:
“Grieve staged his own suicide and suddenly departed for America via Canada
with the Baroness” (13) This is wrong.
-Irene Gammel describes 1908 as a pivotal year in the life of Elda’s companion,
who “suddenly departed for America via Canada with the Baroness” (13). This
is right.
-Use the ellipsis to indicate that you have deleted info within that passage that you have
-In her recent edition of Little Lord Fauntelroy, Ann Thwaite reports that
“Fauntelroys true character is overlaid… by the clothes he wears, by the hair
that curls to his shoulders, and by the sweet girl actresses who played the role
on stage” (v).
-if there was no “that” (conjunction) before the quote begins, you would
have to put a comma: Thwaite reports, “WFn”
-When you want to omit a full sentence or more, use a period before the three ellipsis
-According to Thwaite, Fauntelroy is “brave, thoughtful, enterprising,
unaffected . . . . Moreover, Cedric has to be exceptionally charming to make the
plot work and to convert his grandfather” (v).
-Brackets allow you to insert words of your own into quoted material. You can insert
words in brackets to explain a confusing reference or keep a sentence grammatical
-Irene Gammel reports the Greve [who would later achieve fame as a novelist
under the name Frederick Philip Grove] staged his own suicide” (13)
-Offset quotations longer than four lines (MLA format) or forty worlds (APA format). If the
paragraph is indented one tab space, indent the quotation two tab spaces.
-Don’t use block quotations in short papers
-Cite the source that you consulted, even when a quotation originates from another source:
-Speaking of poet Elsa von Freytag, Marcel Duchamp stated that “the Baroness is not a
Futurist; the baroness is the future” (qtd. in Gammel 156)
-Use a signal phrase to introduce a summary or paraphrase
-Do not open or close a paragraph with a quotations
-Quotations are evidence, and you must introduce and discuss the relevance of that
quote in the body of a paragraph. A quote can’t be a topic sentence, and it can’t be the
concluding statement: always discuss the relevance of the quotation to your essay.
-You can start or end an essay with a quotation, but not in the body.
How Not to Use Sources
-Don’t allow your sources to state your opinions for you:
-I believe that Pink Flamingos is an “exercise in poor taste” (Reed 1) The writer hasn’t
told you what he believes, but what Reed does.
-How to Correct
-State your own opinion, and then turn to the source either for support or for
-Pink Flamingoes relentless description of transgressive acts offers no
redeeming social commentary. Reed sums up the value of the film when he
describes it simply as an “exercise in poor taste” (1).
-Avoid ambiguous citations:
-Freytag denounces the crass commercialism of American culture. “With money they try
to buy beauty ---after it has died --- famishing --- with grimace” more context necessary
-Open with an informative signal phrase and close with a parenthetical citation
-In her conclusion to “The ARt of Madness” Freytag denounces the crass commercialism
of American culture: “With money they try to buy beauty” …
-Don’t do it
-paraphrases need to change the diction and syntax.
-better to have more quotations than present a transcription as a paraphrase
-Hughes’s narrator claims “constant intercourse with Arthur had done much for both of them”
-In works cited you can use “UP” For University Press
-No Inc, no Limited