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Writing 2121 November 22 Lecture (Citing Sources)

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Writing 2121F/G
Tim Freeborn

November 22, 2011 Lecture Citing Sources Responsibly - Summaries (of the 2 academic articles) - report the main idea of the work - will open by naming the title and author of the work - will be concise (1-2 sentences) - will be in your own words (no quotations) - In “An Open Letter to the Students of Harvard” Camille Paglia claims that the humanities departments of major American universities have been ruined by venal professors interested more in career advancement than scholarship, advises students to avoid trendy and befuddling poststructuralist criticism and calls for unified, multi disciplinary faculty of humanities. - Paraphrase - will deal with a specific section of a larger work - will be in your own words: you must change both the diction and the syntax of the original - will open with a signal phrase that identifies the author or source - will conclude with a parenthetical citation -Recent studies place the Baroness’s work at the centre of American modernism. Irene Gammel suggests that the Baroness created the sculpture “God”, a sculpture previously attributed to Morton Schaumberg. Moreover, Gammel speculates that the work, fashioned from a plumbing fixture, directly influenced Duchamp’s seminal work “Fountain” (56). - underlined signal phrase - Quotations - will open with signal phrase identifying the author - will close with parenthetical citation - will transcribe the source accurately - will be integrated into the sentence in a grammatically correct manner - When to Quote - When the language is particularly expressive, vivid, or resistant to effective paraphrase: - Paglia describes Derrida as a “Gloomy Gus one-trick pony, stuck on a rhetorical trope already available in the varied armory of New Criticism” (241) - Aim for balance between paraphrase and quotation - When you are working with a definition central to your essay: - Leir defines “nihilism” as “an ethos of a Russian intellectual movement in the 1860’s”, “An insistence that one should not believe in anything that could not be demonstrated to be true. “ In itself he adds it should not connote… - Quote when allowing debaters to state their positions in their own words - Mackinnon and Dworkin describe pornography as “hate literature” stating that it promotes “bigotry and contempt” and fosters “acts of aggression” (2); in contrast, Paglia regards pornography as a “pagan arena of beauty, vitality, and brutality, of the archaic vigor of nature” noting that it “represents absolute freedom of imagination, as envisioned by the Romantic poets” (111) - Always quote when the language is subject of your analysis -Keene’s adverbs establish nancy’s confidence and independence: the teenage detective backed her car “quickly” to the road, drove “swiftly” to the store, and navigated “skillfully” through the congested streets (The Secret of the Old Clock 13). - How to Quote - Quote judiciously, selecting only the necessary words, phrases and sentences: - Paglia condemns French theory as “phony, obfuscatory, [and] elitist,” and she describes American scholars who endorse that work as an “amoral coterie” (225) - Always integrate quotations with your own words, if only by introducing author in signal phrase - We must take into consideration our contemporary understanding of the protagonist’s name. Ann Thwaite explains “In common usage the word “Fauntleroy” suggests a mollycoddled namby-pamby, a mother’s darling, an overdressed pig, a sissy, a child too good to be true” (v). - Integrate quotes in a manner that is gramattically correct -Irene Gammel describes 1908 as a pivotal year in the life
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