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Citizenship and National Identities
- Family role in creating ‘citizens’ and ‘nationals’
- ‘education of consent’ *Gramsci
- creating ‘moral citizens’ via pedgagogy, discipline and learning civilities to
- mother’ role- moral bearer and teacher of values, bearer and rearer of citizens.
- Father’s role- disciplinarian, productive citizen.
State and Citizenship
- Legal status
- Defines relationship between state/individual (liberal)
- Equal citizenship- equality in the private and public spheres.
- Negotiated with state for rights
- Participation in political, civil spaces
- Difference between legal and ‘real’ citizenship
- Legal citizenship means participation in community (civic Republican model)
- The right to vote
- The right to stand for office.
Impediments to equal participation
- Women unfriendly political structure – culture of politics is androcentric.
- Political culture of violence, safety.
- Double burden- time limitations.
- Gender ideologies.
- Minority Women: double jeopardy: similarity model (must have same
qualifications as other men and women); compensation model: must surpass the
stds. Set for majority men and women.
- Structural Adjustment Policies (SAP)
- Unburdening of care services on families.
- Lack of economic resources.
1. Liberal: individual, gender neutral
a. Assumes states are independent of patriarchal vales.
b. Assumes genderless society.
Liberal-Feminist Approach: assumes the separation of individual and his/her
Participation of minorities, of minority women.
- Communally embedded citizen; individual as part of communities, rights of
- How can rights of individuals be balanced against the rights of communities?
3. Civic Republican
- Participation in public life is key
- Legal status + membership in community
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