AN341 Lecture Notes - Amartya Sen, Distributive Justice, Microcredit
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- Push factors
o 100hr couple: couples that marry their equal – this means that
doctors marry doctors, however they tend to not have children
because they work all the time
- Child care
o Miss the important parts of the child’s life.
- Second shift:
o cant do everything, its hard to work and then come home and work
o Ethical issue for other women to hire someone who has left her kids
behind to come and take care of your children
- Glass Ceiling:
o Even though not as prominent there are still those issues that women
see it come to the corporate level.
- Being with children
- Lower stress
- Group Support- they have support from other mothers etc.
- Living within means
Value of Housework
- Women’s unremunerated work = 34-39& of GDP
- No hours of work performed annually = 25 billion
- Women’s share = 2/3
- Cost of replacing the work of women = $26,310
- Unpaid work of men = 831 hrs per year; of women 1, 483 hours.
Cooking for Love: Domestic Profession
- cooking is a way to a man’s heart – at the heart of husband/wife relationship
- at the heart of nurturing – mother/child bond
- A “home-cooked meal”- separates domestic from public.
- Time- a labour of live; organization, routinization, supervision, quality
control, client satisfaction, consumer preference.
- Self and others- please, sacrifice, collective interests
- Autonomy, power, negotiation?
- Homemaker as domestic worker VV homemaker as “administering
Wages and Expenses
- Pahl: Distinguishes 3 types of household financial arrangements
o The Whole Wage: wage given to wife and allowance to husband.
o Allowance System: Housekeeping allowance given to women
o Pooling System: Wages are pooled.
Control/disposal of Incomes
- Males: lucury items, holidays, leisure items, exchange
- Female: subsistence, essentials, use
- Ideology- Maternal Altruism- that stresses women downplaying self-
- Income and Well-being: women’s access to resources will improve the well
being of families.
New Household Concepts (Amartya Sen)
- Entitlement Approach: the socially and culturally recognized rights of
persons to resource
o Bundles of rights that can be exchanged for other bundles
o Entitlements can come from family (inheritance) or state (welfare,
right to work)
o Lack of entitlements explains women’s/ men’s status and power.
o Micro-credit- everyone gets a loan and the whole group is responsible
for paying back the loan.
- “Comparative Conflicts”- Family as the unit of conflicts and cooperation;
bargaining with kin.
Distributed Justice (Hanna Pappanek)
- Distributive Justice: culture’s definition of “who has rights to what” and its
sense of justice.
o Who gets what, and it is also based on gender as well.
o Society where things must be divided equally there is an equal
- Allocation of needs are based on: entitlements, based on justice (valuation of
Socialization for inequality (Papanek)
- Socialization for inequality: Teaches children…
o The value of particular individuals
- Ideological apparatus/ justification:
o “ Compulsory emotions”- the way an individual is supposed to feel
e.g. maternal instinct, absence of self-interest.
o “Compensatory Justification” – one will be compensated for sacrifice
by being accorded more respect, supermom, in the other world.
- Perceived contributions (how society defines it) and real contributions:
what is actually contributed
o Perceived is what society interprets what you do (real)
being a stay at home wife is what you do, it what society
defines what you do, it does not mean that it is considered as a
- “Fall-back position”: (Bina Agarwal)
o Improving social/ economic supports for women.
o Improving their Bargaining Power within the households.
o Control of land and other resources
o Access to employment
o Access to communal resources
o External supports- laws, banks, NGO’s
o Access to education, reproductive health etc.
o State support for childcare, stay-at-home parents, changing ideologies
- Maid in America
Gender, the Global Economy and Wage Work.
- Does wage work under capitalism increase or decrease kinship and gender
- Does greater prosperity lead to gender equality?
- How has globalization changed the kinship, gender and marital dynamics of
- What are the links between domestic and public wage work and domestic
- What are the gender ideologies that inform both types of work?
- Globalization- Global economic and social integration
o Global flow of capital, labour, technology and goods
o Center/periphery relations of dependence and interdependence –
- Traditionalism- networks of connections between countries, home and
- Differential impacts on the genders.
- New forms of gendered inequalities, advantages and disadvantages.
- Gendered impacts along fault lines of class, ethnicity etc.
- Changes the dynamics of gender within national, cultural, domestic and
labour market realms.
- Ideologies of gender impacts transnational labour flows
- Creates interdependence between women of core and peripheral countries.
Gendered Dimensions of Globalization
- Feminization of labour- visibility
o Care work, factory work, IT and Call Centers, sex work, reproductive
- Dependence on women’s wage work
- Casualization of women’s labour.
- Exploitable, cheap, low skilled, expendable.
- Vertically segregated, docile bodies.
Women in the world…
- 85 million of 175 millin migrants (2001)
Push factors: 100hr couple: couples that marry their equal this means that doctors marry doctors, however they tend to not have children because they work all the time. Child care: miss the important parts of the child"s life. Glass ceiling: even though not as prominent there are still those issues that women see it come to the corporate level. Group support- they have support from other mothers etc. Women"s unremunerated work = 34-39& of gdp. No hours of work performed annually = 25 billion. Cost of replacing the work of women = ,310. Unpaid work of men = 831 hrs per year; of women 1, 483 hours. Cooking for love: domestic profession cooking is a way to a man"s heart at the heart of husband/wife relationship. At the heart of nurturing mother/child bond. A home-cooked meal - separates domestic from public. Time- a labour of live; organization, routinization, supervision, quality control, client satisfaction, consumer preference.