AN341 Lecture Notes - Remittance, Paternalism
Global Care Chain: Demands
- Aging population
- Shortage of public care services
- Nuclearization of households
- Double income families
- Work pressure among professionals
- Emergence of ‘new rich’ in developing countries and middle class women in
the Labour Force.
Supply: Why women go?
- World wide need for caregivers
- To improve standard of living.
- Improve life chances of children
- Precariousness of male employment
o Fewer opportunities for men therefore women are forced to go
- Economic independence, autonomy (women)
- Escape abusive relationships.
- Few work opportunities at home
- Increase consumption, respectability, prestige
- Escape poverty
Economics of Care Work
- Private to market (contract)
- Lucrative business
o More in developing countries, agencies will give money to the agents if
they can get workers for care work.
- Foreign exchange contribution.
- Remittance alleviates national debts, unemployment at hone, contributes to
Impacts of care work: Marriage and Family
- Age at marriage increasing.
- Migrants are often married with children.
o Because it reduced stigma on them.
- Migrants stigmatized as ‘loose’
- Absent wife syndrome.
o As soon as women leave to go to work, their marriage is not as stable,
and often when they come back the husband has often found another
- Impacts on children
- Decline in fertility.
- Changes in provisioning roles.
- Higher standard of living and consumption.
- Cheap labour
- Reserve labour force.
- Low skilled.
- Innate capacities
o Docile Bodies
- Vertical Segregation.
o Women at the bottom.
Factory as ‘family’
- Good daughter/sister (kinship) vs autonomous individuals.
- Negotiating images (modesty, sexuality, lesbian)- Philippian maids
- Resolves contradictions between women’s space (domestic) modesty
concerns, and women’s entry into public/labour space.
- Good girl- bad girl (cultural anxieties)
Global Integration: impacts
- Integration often unequal- rich an poor, center and periphery
- Sex typing of work and underlying ideologies.
- Empowerment via work but disempowered by class and ideologies.
- Low skills based on gendered ideologies within household
- New restrictions and new opportunities.
- Kinship Patriarchy
o Male structures of authority
o Resource and skill allocation (access and control)
o Socialization for inequality
o Gender roles and underlying ideologies.
- “Modernized patriarchy”
o New gender divisions of labour
o Paternalism (family principle)
o Labour hierarchies
o Transfer of gender ideologies to the factories.
o New restrictions.