Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (620,000)
WLU (20,000)
AN (300)
AN101 (100)
Lecture 3

AN101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Bound And Unbound Morphemes, American Sign Language, Paralanguage


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
AN101
Professor
Tristan Long
Lecture
3

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 6 pages of the document.
WEEK 3
Cultural Anthropology: Chapter 4: LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION
WHAT IS LANGUAGE?
Language: a system of sounds of gestures that when put together following certain rules results in ways
that all can understand
-although humans rely mainly on language, also a GESTURE CALL SYSTEM.
Gesture Call System: consists of paralanguage and kinesics
-also convey message through use of space and touch
Paralanguage: extralinguistic noises that accompany language
Kinesics: body motions that convey messages
HOW IS LANGUAGE RELATED TO CULTURE?
- Languages spoken by all members in a culture
Social variables such as class, history and gender and status of speaker influence the way language is used
-People communicate what’s meaning to them and what is or not meaning is defined by culture
-language use affects culture
-Language retention in today’s world= main concern to aboriginal cultures
HOW DID LANGUAGE BEGIN?
-human language began as only gestures
-speech, like gestures uses muscle movements so someone long ago must’ve discovered muscles in mouth
- This way ppl. Can multi-task by using hands AND speaking
Displacement: ability to refer to objects and events removed in time and space (linguistics use this when
referring to things like, long long ago, once upon a time, fado fado fado (long long ago)
-language not just a system but a symbolic system
-different languages have different words for the same concepts.
-each word REPRESENTS A CONCEPT
-anthropologists know that culture is learned and transmitted from person to person, due to effective
communication system
Language: system of communication using sounds/gestures put in meaningful ways according to set of
rules
Symbol: is any sound or gesture to which cultural tradition assigned a meaning. Sounds/gestures with
meaning. The word “laughing” = symbol
Signal: smile sounds or gestures that have natural/self-evident meaning. laughing, smiling
-language experts not sure if dolphins and other mammals possess ability to use symbols and signals
- Apes have been taught to do American Sign Language (chanteh-ape learned 150 diff. signs developing
communication skills of 2-3 years)
THE NATURE OF LANGUAGE
-all languages are transmitting information and sharing cultural/individual experiences with others
-language allows us to express our concerns, beliefs and perceptions into symbols other get
-through spoken language: quickly done in a few sounds (most Lang use about 50 sounds)
-roughly 6000 living languages

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Linguistics: modern scientific study of language of all aspects of language
-in 21st century, researchers still collecting data about understanding logic of languages
-Linguistic Anthropology has many areas: HOW PEOPLE USE LANGUAGE< BOTH CERBAL AND NONVERBAL
TO DEVELOP SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS WITH ONE ANOTHER AND TO CREATE, MAINTAIN AND REPRODUCE
SOCIAL DISTINCTIONS
THE SOUND AND SHAPE OF THE LANGUAGE
Phonetics: study of production, transmission and reception of speech sounds
A: PHONOLOGY
- Once researcher knows all possible sounds in language, they study patterns the sounds take as
they make words
-they then learn the rules and grammar of language
1st Step: ISOLATE PHONEMES
Phonemes: smallest class of sounds that makes a DIFFERENCE in meaning
Ex: Bit and Pit, two phonemes
Butter is pronounced as Budder, so the sounds are represented by variants of same
Phonemes
B: MORPHOLOGY
Morphemes: smallest units of sounds that carry meaning
Ex: Cats and Dogs, two separate morphemes
Bound Morphemes: “s” is a plural indicator morpheme since it carries meaning of plural, but it
can only be in conjunction with a free morpheme b/c “s” in dogzz and “s” in catss, 2 variants of
morphemes
Free Morphemes: Dog, Cat. Free Morpheme because it can stand on its own. Can occur
unattached
C: GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX: next step put morphemes together to make phrases or sentences
Frame Substitution: method used to identify syntactic units of language. Example, a category
called nouns can be established as anything that will fit in “I see a _____”
Syntax: In linguistics, the rules or principles of phrase and sentence making
- Some speakers may not say certain words due to it not being culturally accepted
Grammar: entire formal structure of language. Includes syntax and all morphemes (also
phonemes)
Form classes: parts of speech or categories of words that work the same way in sentence.
Ex: the ____ died. Person or dog works, but not “think”
THE GUESTURE-CALL SYSTEM
Gesture Call System: non-verbal communication
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version