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Lecture 3

AN100 Lecture 3: Test #4

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Amalia Philips

The Ship of the Desert Camels- lie on their stomachs to minimize surface area to the sun, head doesn’t face the sun Shaved animals- drink 1.5 times more water than shaved animals Body Temperature in Camels • Watered- fluctuates less than a dehydrated camel, when the temp. gets hotter and colder • Dehydrated- body temp fluctuated a lot more when it is hotter outside and then lets body cool down. It has less water to give off. • Maximum urine/plasma ratio is 12 Water Loss in feces • Camels lose ½ water content in their feces Dehydration: Human vs. Camel • Dehydrated camel can drink 20 gal. in 5 minutes • If camel drinks all of this water- the blood cells with swell Camel Red Blood Cells • Have nucleated red blood cells (only mammals) o Allows blood cells to be more resistant to osmotic shrinkage and swelling • Oval shaped Animals: Circulation Open Circulatory System • Most animals have this • Heart pumps blood out of main vessels and mixes with extracellular fluid • Hemolymph (blood0 is a separate fluid compartment • ADVANTAGE: Permits fine control of blood flow to body parts Components of Human Blood • Water and soluble in the plasma • Platelets: clotting • Hematocrit= vol. red cells/ vol. whole blood (iron) All blood cells originate from stem cells in bone marrow. Regulation of Hematocrit: negative feedback • Blood doping- blood removed and then day of competition transfuse it back in to increase your oxygen intake • EPO- also used to cheat in Olympics Clotting • Platelets stick together, like a plug • Enzyme cascade results in activation of factor x • Hemophilia- when you don’t clot The Human Circulatory System Hearts • Neurogenic- Rhythmic contractions initiated by pacemaker neurons in the cardiac ganglion o arthropods • Myogenic- Pacemaker muscle cells o Humans and mollusks The Mammalian Heart • 4 chambers • has valves that prevent back flow and valves that are one way the connect to atria and ventricles • pulmonary and systemic are the two parts (right and left) • left side is thicker than right bc it has to pump through more vessels Cardiac Muscle • cells are branched • intercalated discs Heart Valves • leaky valve- heart murmur • rheumatic fever • stenosis The Cardiac Cycle • diastole • systole Electrocardiogram (EKG) • electrical activity of your heart • action potential is fired and that’s what makes your heart beat Measuring blood pressure- 120/80 • Systolic- number on top • Diastolic- number of bottom. When your heart is relaxed. Pressure in the Circulation • Low pressure in the venules- so how does the blood get back to the heart • Arteries have lots of connective tissue layers- so they can handle the pressure of blood pumping form the heart Blood flow through capillaries • Lymphatic system- how plasma gets taken up bc you always have a net loss • Pressure relations in a capillary- blood and plasma accumulate in your legs and they swell when you’re on a plane • Blockage of lymphatic vessels in legs- causes swelling and not blood clots o Only plasma leaks out of capillaries, not platelets, so clots wouldn’t be able to be formed • Lymphatic vessels- come form capillaries Elephantiasis The Lymphatic System • Lots of white blood cells in lymph nodes Cardiovascular Disease- #1 killer of men and women in U.S. • Your first one you usually die • High blood pressure- hypertension- makes your heart have to work harder • Aneurism- bulge of vessel from the connective tissue and smooth muscle being too weak • Atherosclerosis • HDL (good) • LDL (bad) • What happens when you eat too much boudin? • Angioplasty • Coronary Bypass Surgery o They rearrange veins to divert the blood around the artery blockage Animals: Respiration Bar headed goose, Anser indicus Homo sapiens Not all animals have lungs or gills Animals get O2 from the atmosphere or from the water column • Air= 20% O2 • Water= 0.7% O2 Some animals use the skin as a gas exchange organ • Skin has to be wet to dissolve gas • Ok for low oxygen demand • Aquatic animals must be thin Aquatic Respiration • The amount of gas that dissolves in water depends on the solubility coefficient and partial pressure of the gas in contact with the water • Increasing temperature reduces solubility of gases • Increasing salinity reduces solubility of gases • Fresh water at 15 degrees Celsius contains 7.2 mL O2/l • Seawater at 15 c contains 5.8 mL O2/l Aquatic Gas Exchange Organs: Gills • These external gills are not actively ventilated; the animals have relatively low activity levels 1. Ventilation of a gill with water costs more energy than ventilating a lung with air. –true 2. The gills of aquatic animals with high metabolic rates have very efficient oxygen extraction. –true • Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) o This animal has a high oxygen demand. What adaptations are present in its gas exchange organs? • Fish Gills o Ventilation o Large surface area o Flow through o Counter-current exchange Mechanisms of Ventilation in Fish • Efficiency of O2 extraction in ram ventilators approaches 90% Oxygen Availability on Land • Terrestrial Animals: desiccation is a problem • Insect Tracheal System o The tracheal system is part of the exoskeleton and is shed during molts • Respiratory Organs of terrestrial Animals Vary If you are heter for sickle cell anemia- you have a better chance of not getting malaria (or it being less severe) Sickle Cell Anemia is heter recessive o Land snail: vascularized skin inside mantle cavity- has blood vessels in the cavity that allows for gas exchange o To prevent evaporated loss during freezing- why the lungs are inside the cavity in snails • Which animal uses its skin for gas exchange? o Frogs and Snakes • How does this restrict its choice of habitats? Lungs • Cleaning the airway o Smoking kills the cilia cells, and you can’t clear your airways when you have mucus in your airway o We subconsciously do this all of the time- clean out airway • Bronchioles and Alveoli o Surfactants prevent alveolar collapse ▪ Preemies don’
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