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Lecture 9

Lecture 9 Notes.docx

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Amali Philips

Anthropology Lecture 9 – November 12,14,16 2012 Internal – Malinowski Why we need what we need - basic physical needs (Malnowski) External - Cultural ecology : we are limited by our environment or resources, consume whats available to us, doesnt fully show why we consume. Will always make more available to us
 Cultural - Mary Douglas
: wrote a paper called dirt, showed what we created dirty or clean. Displacement of things shows whats dirty/clean to us (fingernails) we are culturally informed in the way we consume*** (class, prestige, gender, age - reasons we consume differently) , cultural influence - why would you eat a pig and not a dog? Body modification is a form of cultural consumption. What definition fits the internal or external approach? Whats another name for external consumption? SUBSITANCE STRATEGIES - Way humans acquire their livelihoods in different ecological environments - Are constrained but not limited by ecology and available resources - Adaptations to our environment (ecology, people and non-humans) - Accompanied by particular social organizations and institutions - Culture directs and shapes survival strategies (production, exchange and consumption) Sustainability - Long term growth which serves all people, protects environment - Resources are not finite but needs are infinite - Carrying Capacity: the number of people a given environment can sustain based on a level of technology Strategies used for Maintaining Carrying Capacity: - Environmental sustainability via – environmentally friendly agriculture or cattle herding - Multi crops, mixed farming and/or subsistence strategies (don’t put all your eggs in one basket) - Reducing population (female infanticide, abandonment of elderly, post- partum sexual taboos etc.) - Expanding via warfare - Technology, food production - Marriage alliances (expanding access) Institutions - Economy: culturally specific ways in which people go about provisioning themselves using land, labour, other resources - Economic system: patterns, processes, institutions involved in the production, exchange, and consumption of goods & services Production - Mode of production: historically specific method by which labour is deployed to produce energy from nature using skills, tools etc. (Eric Wolfe) - Means of production: skills, labour, tools, other resources - Relation of production: relationships between those who engage in production (division of labour) Subsistence strategies - Fi
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