Class Notes (838,072)
Canada (510,659)
Anthropology (292)
AN101 (143)
Lecture 3

Week 3 Notes.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

Tristan Long

WEEK 3 Cultural Anthropology: Chapter 4: LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION WHAT IS LANGUAGE? Language: a system of sounds of gestures that when put together following certain rules results in ways that all can understand -although humans rely mainly on language, also a GESTURE CALL SYSTEM. Gesture Call System: consists of paralanguage and kinesics -also convey message through use of space and touch Paralanguage: extralinguistic noises that accompany language Kinesics: body motions that convey messages HOW IS LANGUAGE RELATED TO CULTURE? - Languages spoken by all members in a culture Social variables such as class, history and gender and status of speaker influence the way language is used -People communicate what’s meaning to them and what is or not meaning is defined by culture -language use affects culture -Language retention in today’s world= main concern to aboriginal cultures HOW DID LANGUAGE BEGIN? -human language began as only gestures -speech, like gestures uses muscle movements so someone long ago must’ve discovered muscles in mouth - This way ppl. Can multi-task by using hands AND speaking Displacement: ability to refer to objects and events removed in time and space (linguistics use this when referring to things like, long long ago, once upon a time, fado fado fado (long long ago) -language not just a system but a symbolic system -different languages have different words for the same concepts. -each word REPRESENTS A CONCEPT -anthropologists know that culture is learned and transmitted from person to person, due to effective communication system Language: system of communication using sounds/gestures put in meaningful ways according to set of rules Symbol: is any sound or gesture to which cultural tradition assigned a meaning. Sounds/gestures with meaning. The word “laughing” = symbol Signal: smile – sounds or gestures that have natural/self-evident meaning. –laughing, smiling -language experts not sure if dolphins and other mammals possess ability to use symbols and signals - Apes have been taught to do American Sign Language (chanteh-ape learned 150 diff. signs developing communication skills of 2-3 years) THE NATURE OF LANGUAGE -all languages are transmitting information and sharing cultural/individual experiences with others -language allows us to express our concerns, beliefs and perceptions into symbols other get -through spoken language: quickly done in a few sounds (most Lang use about 50 sounds) -roughly 6000 living languages Lingusttics: modern scientific study of language of all aspects of language -in 21 century, researchers still collecting data about understanding logic of languages -Linguistic Anthropology has many areas: HOW PEOPLE USE LANGUAGE< BOTH CERBAL AND NONVERBAL TO DEVELOP SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS WITH ONE ANOTHER AND TO CREATE, MAINTAIN AND REPRODUCE SOCIAL DISTINCTIONS THE SOUND AND SHAPE OF THE LANGUAGE Phonetics: study of production, transmission and reception of speech sounds A: PHONOLOGY - Once researcher knows all possible sounds in language, they study patterns the sounds take as they make words -they then learn the rules and grammar of language 1 Step: ISOLATE PHONEMES Phonemes: smallest class of sounds that makes a DIFFERENCE in meaning Ex: Bit and Pit, two phonemes Butter is pronounced as Budder, so the sounds are represented by variants of same Phonemes B: MORPHOLOGY Morphemes: smallest units of sounds that carry meaning Ex: Cats and Dogs, two separate morphemes Bound Morphemes: “s” is a plural indicator morpheme since it carries meaning of plural, but it can only be in conjunction with a free morpheme b/c “s” in dogzz and “s” in catss, 2 variants of morphemes Free Morphemes: Dog, Cat. Free Morpheme because it can stand on its own. Can occur unattached C: GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX: next step put morphemes together to make phrases or sentences Frame Substitution: method used to identify syntactic units of language. Example, a category called nouns can be established as anything that will fit in “I see a _____” Syntax: In linguistics, the rules or principles of phrase and sentence making - Some speakers may not say certain words due to it not being culturally accepted Grammar: entire formal structure of language. Includes syntax and all morphemes (also phonemes) Form classes: parts of speech or categories of words that work the same way in sentence. Ex: the ____ died. Person or dog works, but not “think” THE GUESTURE-CALL SYSTEM Gesture Call System: non-verbal communication -conveys messages of happiness, sadness, tired, etc. -very little of above messages conveyed by spoken language alone -at least 90% in English language, emotional information transmitted not thru words BUT 90% through body language and tone of voice A: Kinesics -humans capable of producing over 250,000 facial expressions Kinesics: a system of notating and analyzing postures, facial expressions, body motions that Convey a message Ex: scratching our lip, furrowing brows=conveying doubt Complex ones= gender signals. Women standing with legs close together, or crossing them Men hold legs apart with upper legs at 10-15 degree angle -Kin messages complement spoken message. Nodding head while saying yes -Cross cultural difference: Aboriginals raise brows with rapid movement, Japs don’t=rude Srilanka- if asked to do something, sideways nod Greece: jerking head back = no Conventional gestures: body movements must be learned and vary cross culturally B: TOUCH Touch: form of body language including physical contact -American business ppl. Shake hands, old guy friends give slaps on back, women embrace and kiss -hug family members C: PROXEMICS: Proxemics: study of how people use physical space. “Personal space” or lack of it - In other places, orderly line up for bus uncommon -Europe = crowded, pushing and shoving – atm personal space is irrelevant -men and women tend to maintain more space between them than with same gender D: PARALANGUAGE: Paralanguage: extra linguistic noises accompanying language. = crying, laughing - “not so much what said but how it’s said” - How a witness up on stand would react A: VOICE QUALITIES -not always easy to distinguish sounds of language and paralinguistic noises, so two different kinds identified Voice qualities: in paralanguage, the background characteristics of a speaker’s voice Includes pitch range (low to high pitch), lip control (open/close), sharp to smooth Transition in pitch (glottis control), articulation control (forced or relaxed), rhythm
More Less

Related notes for AN101

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.