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AN101 Lectures

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Anne- Marie Colpron

Anthropology 10/8/2013 2:29:00 PM September 11 th Anthro - people Pology - word Derived from Greek, “work on people” Culture - originated from German “growth” - Acquire information - Ideas about who people are and hwo they behave - Adaptive reality on earth (how to survive…) - Culture is learned, adaptive, symbolic - NOT a comparison People began as hunter gatherers (the Inuits are still doing this) Developed from the hunting and gathering into food production What is Anthropology? Four Fields Approach 1. Biological/ Physical: dealing with inherited genetics like forensics 2. Archeology: researching the prehistory of early societies 3. Linguistic: studying human communication 4. Cultural: focused on culture, especially social, political, economic patterns, religious beliefs Society: People that live in one place People in a place, can have many different cultures (multiculturalism) Ex. When going into prison, the new prisoner will have to adapt to the new way of life in the prison society in order to survive his/her time in jail When immigrating to a new country, the people are coming into a society, NOT a culture Subculture: Large group Ex: Video gamers are a large group of people that share a common interest in videogames Micro-culture: Small group Ex: video gamers that are dedicated to one specific video game such as NHL 14 or Call of Duty. This is a smaller more specific group of people. Mono-culture: Same everything within a group Ex: Japanses people marry close to family, eat the same food, speak same language etc… Multicultural: many different cultures within one place Ex: Canada with many cultures varying from Middle Eastern to Eurpoean and South American. Each culture is embraced by many within the one society, can be positive or problematic Anthropology 10/8/2013 2:29:00 PM September 13 th The Challenge of Cultural Difference Ethnocentrism: state that all of us human find ourselves in - culture shock: being completely overwhelmed by a sudden change in culture (ex: coming off the plane into a new culture) - Value judgment to see our own culture as “normal” and looking at other cultures are “different” and/or “weird” - Humans grow up centered in a community that is perceived as normal - People are most comfortable in their community due to the “norms” - Canadian society this is not prominent due to multiculturalism Cultural Relativism: Every culture has their own unique expressions such as language, religion, family life, and symbolisms - No one is in a position to make a judgment about another culture, since the judgment is culturally based - Extreme cultural relativism: acceptance of any culture - Ex of Judgment: Quebec wanting to ban federal employees form wearing Hijabs, Turbans etc… -Anthropologists stay neutral in order to study cultures unbiased Explanation of Human Condition Dualism: Idealism: Our ideas determine our cultural reality Materialism: develop our cultures based around materialistic goods. Adapt to external environment in order to survive Determinism: Factors have a cause and effect on things - Agriculture and Population Density: Food production caused the population density to rise due to surplus. Gave the ability to support higher populations and the emergence of other skills and/or trades. Essence: What are people at their base Holism: Connectedness between things. Mind & body, individual & society. Looks at social and cultural phenomenon at different angles giving a broader approach Cultural Materialism: Looking at people and their physical environments, HOW THEY USE THEM Co-evolution: evolution shapes at culture Anthropology 10/8/2013 2:29:00 PM September 16 th Ethics Keep the interests of others who are being researched in mind Fieldwork Going to a location where you’d like to study Information gathering through observation during research Usually 1 year of field work required for PHD “Armchair” Based at the academic institution Got their information second hand Interviewed missionaries, traders, government administrators 6000 nations “encapsulate” Anthropology: set of techniques for understanding a collective group of people Ethnography: writing about an ethnic group Ethnology: comparing characteristics of one culture to another Film - Mananovski: One of the world’s most famous Anthropologist. - Had a huge impact on the village. - Magic - Magic for fishing, agriculture, love etc - Participant information: evidence from the diaries and journal entries he wrote while he was there Anthropology 10/8/2013 2:29:00 PM September 23 rd NOTHING PAST PAGE 82 FOR MID TERM, EVERYTHING BEFORE IT Interaction in the Field Fieldwork An extended period of close involvement with the people in whose way of life anthropologists are interested, during which anthropologists ordinarily collect most of their data. Locations will vary and will depend on interests of the anthropologists How much does your own theory influence what you see Participant-observation The method anthropologists use to gather information by living and working with the people whose culture they are studying Participating in their lives as much as possible Both participation and observation are important and help obtain different kinds of data Early anthropologists were male Women became interested in studying other women in foreign countries  Books came out that were insightful  Information that men couldn’t obtain Gender of people and gender of the anthropologists make a difference on the type of information that is gathered Age of the researcher would have the tendency to study people around their own age - Feel that they already have a connection Fieldwork Experience Preparing for fieldwork, what to study and where Selecting a site, research available material, past research Obtain funding, university, government, corporate Ethics clearance needed for all human resear
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