Week 1 Lecture 1
Read first 3 chapters of the Indian book
The study of tourism.
Anthro is a inter disciplinary study
You have to understand the cultural stand points of it. Example: A system of
bartering where we can barter with a group while they came to America
they’d have to pay full price for the item. Western stereotypes in
ethnocentrism to display how even when we’re trying to be sensitive but
Link Ethnocentrism like an example of tourism. People going into a country
and calling them primitive
Week 2 Lecture 1
British Anthropologists something Malnofsky was born 1884 in Poland.
Decided to do a native field study. Went out to study the Mailu people off
the South coast of New Guiana. All aspects f social life was served for basic
human needs like shelter, food, and reproduction. Known as functionalism.
The satisfaction of biological needs is functionalism. Culture creates
implements, weapons, and means of transport. Breakthrough was he when
he was able to learn the Native English and ask his own questions.
Participant observation is being part of everything and participating in it.
His approach is holistic because living their life and being apart of the tribe
is being able to see the whole picture. Sees multiple lenses of one particular
Week 3 Lecture 1 Jan 21
Enculturation: When someone learns his or her own culture. Becomes a
natural behavior, but some people as they grow older lose their culture
Ethnocentrism: Believing your culture is superior. You judge other cultures
from your own standpoints and see other people’s morals and values as
strange. Anthropology wants to work against ethnocentrism Cultural Relativism: Trying to understand a culture on their own grounds.
Believe cultures have different morals and accept and try to understand them
Fieldwork: Working in a different place and stay there for a period of time
while learning about the culture
Participant observation: Participating and immersing yourself in everyday
life of the culture. Learned their language and values and beliefs to
experience their culture in the inside
Positivism: An approach (used for the beginning of the 20 century) where
you tried to treat a natural science as a hard science. Criticized because it
doesn’t give you the whole picture because it is human beings that change
and don’t act the same way every single time.
Reflexivity: Being aware that you come from a different culture and being
aware of how you can influence the research. For example, a woman
wouldn’t be accepted as easily to be taken hunting because its more of a man
thing to do
Chronicle of the Guayaki Indians
Written in 1971 by a French anthropologist
Ethnography: Based on direct observation
First chapter: Birth process
The ethnographer compares the birth process of the Guayaki to the
one of his own culture
Holist approach: Birth process is linked to economical, political, and
Columbus and the Indians
Columbus depictions of the Indians correspond to his own preconceptions
Discovered America in 1492
Was loyal to the Spanish Crown
Was looking for trade routs to arrive to India
Columbus First Impressions on the Natives Absence of clothing (Believed that meant an absence of any customs)
Absence of law, religion, and rights
A kind of blank page on which Spanish religion and customs could be
The Indians are good, peaceful, and generous
The Indians are savage,, cruel, and thieves
Columbus describes them in both way because it has a huge influence on
Hobbes believed the natives lives in a state close to nature and they didn’t
have any kind of civilization. Believed the lived without law, had no money,
was brutes, etc.
Rousseau criticized Hobbes. Agreed that Indians lived in the state of nature,
but believed they are good, generous, and peaceful people because
civilization is the thing that corrupts individuals
He interprets the Natives through his own values:
Valorizing material wealth (generosity = stupidity)
Valorizing private property (taking = robbing)
This is the natives way of making an alliance
A culture where you can see, like their goods and social relations
Columbus Failed to Consider
What is valuable or not is a convention
A different system does not mean the absence of a system
Projecting our own Values to try to understand the Natives Very problematic because different behaviors are judged to be stupid or
inconsequent because they are misinterpreted as imperfect versions of our
selves (ethnocentrism). This is a way of justifying domination and
From Assimilation to Enslavement
The Natives: Are not to be considered subjects and should be treated as
resources to exploit
The Natives were not immune to European Viruses, like influenza and
Started with the discovery of America
It was the perfect excuse to colonize the Natives because they were seen as
not having laws or anything.
Has a historical period. From the 15 to the 20 centuries, many European
countries have appropriated territories in order to exploit the local people
and the natural resources for their own advantage
The political control over another country, which implies an occupation of
settlers and an economic exploitation
Extraction of material wealth
Imposed and maintained by force
Emphasizes the centrality of material interest (economy) and the use of
European countries that colonized America:
European countries that colonized Africa
Countries colonized by England
Canada was colonized by France and England
The territory was considered an empty wilderness
There was an interest in fur commerce
The colonizers turned the land into a commodity
They elaborated assimilation policies towards the Natives (seeking to
extinguish the Aboriginal titles to the land without violating the British
Conquered places in which colonial administrators, merchants and local
elites defended their own interest, exploiting local population as their labor
Impact of Colonialism
Colonialism destructed the local order.
People having to start paying taxes to the colonial power. Huntergatherers
(in South Africa) couldn’t pay in game. This forced local population to find
work and do jobs such as mine work.
Destruction of the complementary aspect of the sexual division of labor
The persistence of profound social and economic entanglements linking
former colonial territories to their former rulers despite being their own
countries (political sovereignty) Anthropology was born in colonial times (19 century)
Armchair anthropologists (Sitting at home making their own judgments
looking at other researcher’s information. No fieldwork)
Evolutionism of 19 century
A problematic theory that stipulates that all human groups follow the same
stages of cultural evolution
All human groups are aligned in a single evolution line from the most
primitive to most civilized
Evolutionist of the 19 century
Believed everyone went through 3 stages in human evolution.
1. Savagery 2. Barbarism 3. Civilization
How were evolutionist theories used to justify colonialism?
Why are evolutionist theories very ethnocentric, misleading and inadequate?
On which grounds can we consider a culture more evolved than another?
These theories are ethnocentric since they classify different people based on
Movie: BBQ Area (Babakiuieria) Jan 25
A perspective of colonialism but opposite. The movie makes the white
How do you explain the title of the film?
The same with Canada, our name is just a misunderstanding and was
How is the film a satirical rolereversal of colonization? It’s extremely accurate and was a complete reversal on how Canada is with
whites and blacks
How does the film make us critically think of the Native situation in
In the film we saw what it looks like to be treated as if we were the Natives.
Although it happens now a days to the Natives, seeing it in the eyes of this
was happening to us is an eye opener
The hungters !Kung of the Kalahri
1. How does the band system work?
2. Make note of the economic system and gendered division of labour
3. How are young boys acculturated?
The band system: Huntergatherer system that is seminomatic (they’re
nomatic people) which means the people move to where the food is. Don’t
have distinct settlements but if there was no food systems around they would
Work of the woman is to spend all day to gathering/uncovering roots,
berries, and plants from the ground. Hunting is for the men. Boys are to
start learning to hunt early in life, but they are not taught they learn from
experience. Depending on how much interest they have in hunting would
show through on who would become better hunters than others. Boys would
be considered a man would be based on their hunting skills. They’re told to
bring a certain animal home, like an ox, after hunting and that is when they
get their scars that show them they’re ready for marriage. Weapons (like
spears, bows, and arrows) are all handmade. Poison tips are made for the
arrows to kill the animals easier.
Concentrate on chapters 1, 2, 3, & 7
60 multiple choice and true and false
Look at slides and complete information with the textbook
Instead of poor.. They are societies of leisure: They have a lot of free time to spend with their
They are well nourished, having a balanced diet. They can be picky about
what they choose to eat.
Sexual Division of Labor
Women gather $70 of the diet
Men hunt 30% of the diet
Need in a vague concept
We can satisfy the need of hunger: By eating rice and beans or steak and
In the Western World: We valorize quantity and diversity
Among the !Kung San: Having enough o satisfy hunger and share kin
Are material possessions a universal measure of wealth and poverty?
No, material posessions are not a universal measure of wealth and poverty.
To be rich means to be well integrated in a community. To be poor is to be
Not all societies set he same economical priorities
Different societies use different principles to organize their economic life
Economic processes cannot be considered apart from the cultural
institutions in which they are embedded
Obtaining the most possible at the smallest possible cost
Relatively recent cultural invention
Not all societies follow his system
Making the capitalist system the prototype of human rationality is
ethnocentric and reductionist
Marcel Mauss (18721950)
Gift exchange theory (give and counter given) Contrasting different economic systems
Gift exchange: reciprocity and redistribution
Deeply embedded in social relationships
Gift and market exchange: accumulation
What links participants in cash, trading money
Gift exchange Egalitarian societies
The example of huntergatherers bands
Institutionalized sharing: Giving and countergiving
The one who has the prestigious position is the one who gives: Giving has
more value than receiving. Why?
Because those you gave to are in debt to you
Cultural example of gift economy: What is important to exchange, not to
Red shell necklaces traded to the North
White shell necklaces traded to the South
These Kula necklaces and armbands cannot be sold as commodities:
They do not have an economical value per se.
Nevertheless they are very prestigious and valued
Question: What is the purpose of these ceremonial exchanges?
If no one keeps the goods, these are circulating around, what is the
To create relationships and links between people. The mutual obligations
such as hospitality, protection and assistance. The relationships that are
created are more important than the good giving and countergiving is more
important than having.
Potlatch (Kwakiutl) Cultural example of redistribution:
Potlatch means “to give away”
Big feasts where the accumulated goods (food, clothing, etc.) are
The status of any given group is raised not by who has the most resources,
but by who redistributes the most resources
Descent allows us to form different kind of social groups and even political
organizations such as:
A descent group composed of consanguine members or blood relatives who
believe they can trace their descent from known ancestors.
The dad’s lineage is passed onto their offspring. The lineage is passed on to
the son’s children but not the daughter’s. The daughter’s children would be
part of her husband’s lineage
A social group formed by people connected by fatherchild links
They recognize the patrilineal descent
It is prohibited to marry in the patrilineage; considered incestuous
The Nuer (Sudan, Africa)
Studied in 1930 by the English functionalist anthropologist EvansPritchard
As a political organization
The lineage is a corporate group (Ie, has a single legal personality
As the Ashanti put it, a lineage is “one person”
All members of a lineage are equal in law to all others
They control property (like land) as a unit
Does that mean that in a matrilineage women rule over man? No, matrilineage is not just the inverted mirror of a patrilneage
The most important relation in a matrileanage is the sisterbrother pair
The real authtority figure for a mother’s son is not his proper father but his
The avunculate relationship
The special relationship between a sister’s son and his maternal uncle
Why is the avunculate relationship so important in a matrilineage?
Because a son is not a member of his father’s lineage but only his maternal
The Trobriand Islanders
Studies at the beginning of the 20 century by the English Functionalist
A descent group formed by members who believe they have a common
(sometimes mythical) ancestor, even if they cannot specify the genealogical
We find a different kinship terminology samegender siblings: A father’s
brother’s children or a mother’s sister’s children
The children of a person’s parents same gender siblings. A father’s
brother’s children or a mother’s sister’s children
The children of a person’s parents’ oppositegender siblings; A father’s
sister’s children or a mother’s brother’s children
It uses kinship terms that merge or equate with established classes of kin
For example: A cross cousin can designate the son of the father’s female
cousin who’s position corresponds to that of a father’s sister
Marriage and Mating Marriage is not synonymous with mating.
It involves a change in th