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Kimberly Arkin

Lecture 1 ▯ 1/16/14 Captain James Cook (1728-1779) • First British explorer to discover Hawaii (thought it wasAustralia (whoops)); planted flag for British; mapped New Zealand and other areas of Pacific in great detail and accuracy • Grew up very poor until joining British merchant marine as a teen; joined royal navy in 1755, and became a commander by mid 1760s • Discovered Hawaiian islands unintentionally whilst searching for Northwest Passage o Stopped by Tahiti to return native they had taken o Was greeted very sexually by women (probably commoner women) o The men on the ships give the women gifts and baubles; the natives begin to call Cook Lono/Rono o The priests begin to treat Cook ritualistically; taken into temples, fed lots of food, crier announcing Lono’s presence preceded Cook where he went o Three months later, in February, British leave with no intent to return; there is a storm, breaking the mast of a ship, and they are forced to return ▪ Priests are the same, ritualistically treating Cook ▪ Chiefs, instead of being ambivalent are angry; there is a huge increase of theft ▪ Cook takes highest chief in “British show of force” to insist upon return ▪ Is stabbed in the back by native with stolen trading knife; his remains are taken, consumed, and his bones were taken as prizes What Happened? • In Hawaii, then, there was a new year’s ritual, around November to January (the time that Cook is there) o Festival involved reproduction between gods and man (god and man are brothers struggling over their sister who represents earth); also known as night and day: after winter solstice, days get longer, representing triumph of man o Women thought to have unique ability to turn divine into human • The incarnation of the god is Lono, an agricultural god who is hegemonic (in power), with senior lineage; is autochthonous (is from the earth or land) o Symbol for Lono happens to look exactly like a ship mast o The word “god” means man and the word “man” means image o Thus, the idea that gods could be represented in a man or image • Lono is in struggle with man: the warriors, junior lineage, foreigners (but played by natives) • The struggle over women, agricultural fertility, etc.; this is why the women sleep with Cook’s men: they believe in the divinity of the men, and seek to raise their standing by mating and producing children with gods • During Lono’s rounds around the island, special rules: Kings are not allowed to leave their homes o o People not permitted to leave, enter the ocean; the women who went to the ships were probably breaking the priests’orders o Instead, there is much singing, dancing, and sex • The festival ends with Lono, after circling the island, the head king emerges from his home, meets with Lono; they exchange insignia, the king usurps Lono’s power, and Lono is banished o This is the king Cook happened to capture o Ku is chiefly god of war who kings dress like; there is a Ku cult who keeps the power amongst the chiefs (except for when they are not allowed to leave, during the festival) • Upon Cook’s return, there is unrest: he is not supposed to return until the next year, and thus the story no longer matches up and must be adapted; thus, he is killed and eaten Same event, different meanings • The British saw a broken mast, prostitutes, opportunities for trade • Hawaiian king saw a challenge to his sovereignty • Hawaiian priests saw an opportunity for greater power and authority • Hawaiian women saw opportunity for cosmic miscegenation and the renegotiation of status • Hawaiian men saw ways of making the land more productive Socio-Logic • Is no universal logic or reason; we apprehend and interpret events through creative use of local categories and practices • Even “local” people have a variety of perspectives based on social position, interest, and even personality ▯ 1/21/14 Origins of Anthropology Part I: Creating a science of man • Anthropology: literally, “the science of man” o Brennan (Bones) is an example of biological anthropology ▪ Synchronic/diachronic: single time/over time • Archeology also a part of anthropology; can also be synchronic or diachronic • Linguistic anthropology studies how language is tied to culture and ways of living • Sociocultural anthropology Tensions Within CulturalAnthropology: what is anthropology about? • Diachronic vs. synchronic: interested in history? What kind? Or only the present? If so, why? • Universalizing vs. particularizing: interested in telling a story about all of humanity? What kind of story? Or rather a story about a particular group? If so, on what grounds? Themes • Seeing tensions at the beginning of anthropology in Europe • Ask about relationship between subject and observer European Renaissance • Invention of the printing press—publication of classical texts in Europe o Increase in availability of books o Increase in literacy o People in power used to have monopoly over information that lower classes could learn; no longer • Reformation: challenge to the authority and power of the Catholic church • Discovery of and experience in the “new” worlds inAfrica,Asia, and theAmericas Secularization • Secularization: dividing the world into a series of realms each with its own experts, leaders, and bodies of knowledge • Knowledge previously perceived as universal is now doubted more • Autonomous realm of human affairs • Human past and future determined and changed by human action; the fact that society could be changed and molded by people, not reliant upon the divine, was revolutionary • Manifests in Machiavelli’s “The Prince”: the end justifies the means; book quickly became scandalous, “godless” Relativism • Skeptics: Michel de Montaigne o Caught in middle of French wars of religion (Protestants vs. Catholics) o Begins to write about perspective, normality, and truth o There may be multiple truths • Part of particularizing impulse (as opposed to universalizing, implying that there is one truth) • Contrast with ethnocentrism: presuming that your way of life is superior, the best, etc. Inventing “Man” • th Beginning/middle of 15 century, people justify killing others in wars, etc. by claiming that they are not really “people” • In Spain, 1550, church had the “humanist” perspective; did not justify death o Particularization: are they really human? They commit inhuman acts, like cannibalism o If these people do not convert, they must be overpowered and forced to convert to Christianity • Bartholomé de las Casas submits information about the culture that Sepúlveda does not understand o Casas explains that the practices are not evidence of depravity, but instead of wanting to give the highest sacrifice to their deity o As an eye witness source, Casas adds empirical evidence to the debate • Sepúlveda submits that the “Indians” are inferior to Spaniards, wild, intemperate, and like “
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