Lecture 1.pdf

7 Pages
112 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Anthropology
Course
AN101
Professor
Kimberly Arkin
Semester
Spring

Description
Lecture 1 ▯ 1/16/14 Captain James Cook (1728-1779) • First British explorer to discover Hawaii (thought it wasAustralia (whoops)); planted flag for British; mapped New Zealand and other areas of Pacific in great detail and accuracy • Grew up very poor until joining British merchant marine as a teen; joined royal navy in 1755, and became a commander by mid 1760s • Discovered Hawaiian islands unintentionally whilst searching for Northwest Passage o Stopped by Tahiti to return native they had taken o Was greeted very sexually by women (probably commoner women) o The men on the ships give the women gifts and baubles; the natives begin to call Cook Lono/Rono o The priests begin to treat Cook ritualistically; taken into temples, fed lots of food, crier announcing Lono’s presence preceded Cook where he went o Three months later, in February, British leave with no intent to return; there is a storm, breaking the mast of a ship, and they are forced to return ▪ Priests are the same, ritualistically treating Cook ▪ Chiefs, instead of being ambivalent are angry; there is a huge increase of theft ▪ Cook takes highest chief in “British show of force” to insist upon return ▪ Is stabbed in the back by native with stolen trading knife; his remains are taken, consumed, and his bones were taken as prizes What Happened? • In Hawaii, then, there was a new year’s ritual, around November to January (the time that Cook is there) o Festival involved reproduction between gods and man (god and man are brothers struggling over their sister who represents earth); also known as night and day: after winter solstice, days get longer, representing triumph of man o Women thought to have unique ability to turn divine into human • The incarnation of the god is Lono, an agricultural god who is hegemonic (in power), with senior lineage; is autochthonous (is from the earth or land) o Symbol for Lono happens to look exactly like a ship mast o The word “god” means man and the word “man” means image o Thus, the idea that gods could be represented in a man or image • Lono is in struggle with man: the warriors, junior lineage, foreigners (but played by natives) • The struggle over women, agricultural fertility, etc.; this is why the women sleep with Cook’s men: they believe in the divinity of the men, and seek to raise their standing by mating and producing children with gods • During Lono’s rounds around the island, special rules: Kings are not allowed to leave their homes o o People not permitted to leave, enter the ocean; the women who went to the ships were probably breaking the priests’orders o Instead, there is much singing, dancing, and sex • The festival ends with Lono, after circling the island, the head king emerges from his home, meets with Lono; they exchange insignia, the king usurps Lono’s power, and Lono is banished o This is the king Cook happened to capture o Ku is chiefly god of war who kings dress like; there is a Ku cult who keeps the power amongst the chiefs (except for when they are not allowed to leave, during the festival) • Upon Cook’s return, there is unrest: he is not supposed to return until the next year, and thus the story no longer matches up and must be adapted; thus, he is killed and eaten Same event, different meanings • The British saw a broken mast, prostitutes, opportunities for trade • Hawaiian king saw a challenge to his sovereignty • Hawaiian priests saw an opportunity for greater power and authority • Hawaiian women saw opportunity for cosmic miscegenation and the renegotiation of status • Hawaiian men saw ways of making the land more productive Socio-Logic • Is no universal logic or reason; we apprehend and interpret events through creative use of local categories and practices • Even “local” people have a variety of perspectives based on social position, interest, and even personality ▯ 1/21/14 Origins of Anthropology Part I: Creating a science of man • Anthropology: literally, “the science of man” o Brennan (Bones) is an example of biological anthropology ▪ Synchronic/diachronic: single time/over time • Archeology also a part of anthropology; can also be synchronic or diachronic • Linguistic anthropology studies how language is tied to culture and ways of living • Sociocultural anthropology Tensions Within CulturalAnthropology: what is anthropology about? • Diachronic vs. synchronic: interested in history? What kind? Or only the present? If so, why? • Universalizing vs. particularizing: interested in telling a story about all of humanity? What kind of story? Or rather a story about a particular group? If so, on what grounds? Themes • Seeing tensions at the beginning of anthropology in Europe • Ask about relationship between subject and observer European Renaissance • Invention of the printing press—publication of classical texts in Europe o Increase in availability of books o Increase in literacy o People in power used to have monopoly over information that lower classes could learn; no longer • Reformation: challenge to the authority and power of the Catholic church • Discovery of and experience in the “new” worlds inAfrica,Asia, and theAmericas Secularization • Secularization: dividing the world into a series of realms each with its own experts, leaders, and bodies of knowledge • Knowledge previously perceived as universal is now doubted more • Autonomous realm of human affairs • Human past and future determined and changed by human action; the fact that society could be changed and molded by people, not reliant upon the divine, was revolutionary • Manifests in Machiavelli’s “The Prince”: the end justifies the means; book quickly became scandalous, “godless” Relativism • Skeptics: Michel de Montaigne o Caught in middle of French wars of religion (Protestants vs. Catholics) o Begins to write about perspective, normality, and truth o There may be multiple truths • Part of particularizing impulse (as opposed to universalizing, implying that there is one truth) • Contrast with ethnocentrism: presuming that your way of life is superior, the best, etc. Inventing “Man” • th Beginning/middle of 15 century, people justify killing others in wars, etc. by claiming that they are not really “people” • In Spain, 1550, church had the “humanist” perspective; did not justify death o Particularization: are they really human? They commit inhuman acts, like cannibalism o If these people do not convert, they must be overpowered and forced to convert to Christianity • Bartholomé de las Casas submits information about the culture that Sepúlveda does not understand o Casas explains that the practices are not evidence of depravity, but instead of wanting to give the highest sacrifice to their deity o As an eye witness source, Casas adds empirical evidence to the debate • Sepúlveda submits that the “Indians” are inferior to Spaniards, wild, intemperate, and like “
More Less

Related notes for AN101

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit