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Amali Philips

L25 March 11, 2013 Violence Against Women, Continued  Analysis o Ideological – gender based ideas, beliefs, values that underlie practices  Eg, typically male siblings need to protect and control their sisters  Roles are changing (women are working now and some men don‟t know how to react to it)  These ideologies need to change! o Patriarchal Families: private space controlled by males; patriarchy couched as „protection of females‟  Eg. In many families where the women are the breadwinners the man will still be seen as the head of the household. Man can have 0 income but the woman will still have to ask permission to buy something (with the money she earned) o Political – (sex/gender/class/nationalistic politics; transnational, racial, immigrant contexts, reactions to westernization)  Affects their identity  Eg. Immigrants are economically and racially marginalized – women are doubly so o Economic – globalization, free markets, women‟s work, economic and job insecurities for men  Progressive impact on women‟s work  More and more women are being employed globally because woman are more passive, can work longer hours, work hard, more mundane tasks, cheap labour  Mostly in factories and IT  This is very common in Papua New Guinea o Popular Culture: sexualisation of women in popular media  TV, pornography, advertisements, etc. o Social Changes: female education, changes in family size  Acid attacks are often happening because women are going to schools  Challenging gender roles in the household  There is a correlation between female literacy/education and smaller families and gender transformation  Gender transformation: women want more decision power, etc.  Female reproductive roles are changing (women are deciding how many kids they want to have, etc.) o Gender – shifts in gender roles and relations – “crisis of masculinity”  Response to VAW o Expansion of the concept of gender violence o Legal approaches at state levels (where there are laws and services)  Many women around the world want a woman legal system because legal systems are often biased towards men o Debated in public o Women take up the struggle at national, grass-roots levels L25 March 11, 2013 o Right Based Approach: Rights of the Child: of Women; Freedom From Torture: Right to Health and bodily Integrity  FGC as Human Rights o 1. FGC as Health Issue (Right to Health and Bodily Integrity – Art. 15 of UN Resolution on Human Rights).  Some reasons for FGC:  To protect women from assault  Hygienic  To “cure” hysteria and promiscuous behaviour  Societal pressures  Risk factors, harm  Not much can be done about this because there are many other surgeries that are harmful that people still do; also many parents do things for their children (not taking them to the doctors, etc.)  Mutilation means doing it purposely; now it is called cutting to show that it can be done as a choice  Education about risks  Problems led to abandonment after 1990s  Human Rights Approach o Critics:  Imposition of western idea, cultural imperialism  Against multiculturalism and diversity  Rights of Children: don‟t parents have rights (best interests of child may be served)  Following traditions  Right of passage  Often FGC is required for marriage so by parents doing this to their daughters they are allowing their daughters to get married  Rights of Women as: autonomous agents, choice makers  Women educating other women about it  There are now symbolic circumcisions rather than doing the real cutting in some places o Eg. Sri Lanka  Finding alternatives as a right of passage  Prof: “main support is economic independence for women” o If women don‟t need money through marriage maybe the FGC won‟t be so important Wednesday March 13, 2013 Gender Law and the State Patriarchy: - systems of interconnected parts and patters - permeates all institutions L25 March 11, 2013 - ideological level, state/citizenship, legal, institutions, laws, kinship, work etc. o when we talk about state, it means we are citizens of the state. o Some states can be ultra conservative, practices can be very gender unequal where other states can be more liberal. o There are laws that entrench gender inequalities and then there are other laws that done o Kinship can also
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