- Push factors
o 100hr couple: couples that marry their equal – this means that
doctors marry doctors, however they tend to not have children
because they work all the time
- Child care
o Miss the important parts of the child’s life.
- Second shift:
o cant do everything, its hard to work and then come home and work
o Ethical issue for other women to hire someone who has left her kids
behind to come and take care of your children
- Glass Ceiling:
o Even though not as prominent there are still those issues that women
see it come to the corporate level.
- Being with children
- Lower stress
- Group Support- they have support from other mothers etc.
- Living within means
Value of Housework
- Women’s unremunerated work = 34-39& of GDP
- No hours of work performed annually = 25 billion
- Women’s share = 2/3
- Cost of replacing the work of women = $26,310
- Unpaid work of men = 831 hrs per year; of women 1, 483 hours.
Cooking for Love: Domestic Profession
- cooking is a way to a man’s heart – at the heart of husband/wife relationship
- at the heart of nurturing – mother/child bond
- A “home-cooked meal”- separates domestic from public.
- Time- a labour of live; organization, routinization, supervision, quality
control, client satisfaction, consumer preference.
- Self and others- please, sacrifice, collective interests
- Autonomy, power, negotiation?
- Homemaker as domestic worker VV homemaker as “administering
Wages and Expenses
- Pahl: Distinguishes 3 types of household financial arrangements
o The Whole Wage: wage given to wife and allowance to husband.
o Allowance System: Housekeeping allowance given to women
o Pooling System: Wages are pooled.
Control/disposal of Incomes
- Males: lucury items, holidays, leisure items, exchange - Female: subsistence, essentials, use
- Ideology- Maternal Altruism- that stresses women downplaying self-
- Income and Well-being: women’s access to resources will improve the well
being of families.
New Household Concepts (Amartya Sen)
- Entitlement Approach: the socially and culturally recognized rights of
persons to resource
o Bundles of rights that can be exchanged for other bundles
o Entitlements can come from family (inheritance) or state (welfare,
right to work)
o Lack of entitlements explains women’s/ men’s status and power.
o Micro-credit- everyone gets a loan and the whole group is responsible
for paying back the loan.
- “Comparative Conflicts”- Family as the unit of conflicts and cooperation;
bargaining with kin.
Distributed Justice (Hanna Pappanek)
- Distributive Justice: culture’s definition of “who has rights to what” and its
sense of justice.
o Who gets what, and it is also based on gender as well.
o Society where things must be divided equally there is an equal
- Allocation of needs are based on: entitlements, based on justice (valuation of
Socialization for inequality (Papanek)
- Socialization for inequality: Teaches children…
o The value of particular individuals
- Ideological apparatus/ justification:
o “ Compulsory emotions”- the way an individual is supposed to feel
e.g. maternal instinct, absence