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Archeology – Lecture 1.docx

14 Pages

Archaeology and Heritage Studies
Course Code
Gary Warrick

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Archeology – Lecture 1 9/18/2013 7:29:00 AM History of Archeology Antiquarianism to Colonial Archeology Read Chapter 1 First 10 Pages History Of Archeology Science of Archeology method and theory Discoveries European origins – collecting wealth objects Middle-class interest – Power and privilege and control of the past Antiquarianism Ancients and artifacts Classical times Medieval (archeology was not that important) focused of Christianity not antiquities until the renaissance Renaissance and collecting classical art (wealthier people would collect) Scientific antiquarianism The Three Age Stage Christian Thomsen (1836) – Stone, Bronze, Iron Jens Worsaae (1849) – Primeval Antiques of Denmark Scandinavian Archeology – mound excavation, midden excavation, experimental archeology, seriation dating Daniel Wilson (1851) – The Archeology and Prehistoric Annals of Scotland ** First use of “prehistory” in English-speaking world Geology and Evolution Charles Lyell (1830-1833) Principles of Geology – uniformitarianism stratigraphy, great age to earth Charles Darwin (1859) On the Origin of Species – biological evolution – survival of organism = successful adaptation to environment through natural selection; gradual, lengthy process Antiquity of Humans James Ussher – biblical creation 9 a.m. Oct 23, 4004 B.C. Paleolithic archaeology – France and England caves and river gravels – association of humans and extinct animals with stone tools Jacques Boucher des Perthes (1847) Cultural Evolution Edward Tylor (1871) Primitive Culture Culture = “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society” Sir John Lubbock (1834-1913) Some species are doomed to extinction Lewis Henry Morgan (1818-1881) Lawyer - Friend of Ely Parker – Seneca - Ethnography of Haudenosaunee - League of the Iroquois (1851) John Lubbock (1865) Prehistoric Times – Ethnographic analogy as models of past societies; social Darwinism and scientific racism Lewis Henry Morgan (1877) Ancient Society – Savagery, Barbarianism Moundbuilder Myth Thomas Jefferson (1787) Notes on the State of Virginia – description of first “scientific excavation” of burial mound in Americas Squire and Davis (1848) – mounds constructed by vanished race of non- Natives Cyrus Thomas (1894) Anthologist (studies bugs) – Mounds built by Natives Victorian Archeology David Boyle – founder of Canadian archeology AARO – 1887-1928 Provincial Museum (ROM) – 1896 Field archeologists – Andrew Hunter, George Laidlaw, W.J. Wintemberg Exploration and Colonial Archeology 19 thand early 20thcentury Museums Rich collectors Travellers and explorers Imperial Britain – retired army officers, surveyors, aristocracy – digging sites in colonies for museum specimens Archeology – Lecture 2 9/18/2013 7:29:00 AM History of Archeology – Part 2 Time-Space Charts to Post Processual Archeology Pages 32-48 Archeological Data and Interpretation 9/18/2013 7:29:00 AM 1. Artifacts, Ecofacts, Geofacts 2. Features and Structures 3. Site and Component/ Locus 4. Site Types 5. Context and Provenience Artifacts, Ecofacts and Geofacts Artifact = any portable object manufactured or modified by humans in the past Ecofact = any non-artifactual remains in a site that were deposited by past human activity(e.g. animal bones, charred seeds, unmodified stones) Geofact = portable object produced by natural (non-human) process (e.g. carnivore-gnawed bone, naturally-flaked stone) Features and Structures Feature = non-portable object used, mode or modified by humans  Pit  Post hole/ post mould  Midden (garbage pile)  Living floor  Burial (pit, mound) Structure = house, earthwork/mound, monument, pyramid, totem pole, building, bridge, aqueduct, road, trail, CMT (culturally modified tree) Site and Component/Locus Archaeological Site = any location containing physical evidence of past human activity or occupation Component = distinct temporal period of site occupation or use Locus = a concentration or clustering of archaeological remains Site Types  Habitation/occupation/settlement (open-air/cave/rockshelter)  Trail/road (e.g. inukshuk)  CMTs/agricultural fields (e.g. terraces)  Ceremonial/Sacred (e.g. Stonehenge)  Rock art (e.g. Paleolithic caves)  Monument (e.g. Pyramid)  Burial/cemetery/battlefield  Shipwreck/underwater Context and Provenience Context = spatial relationships of archaeological remains (matrix, provenience, association) – primary (undisturbed from original position) and secondary (displacement from original position) Matrix = natural and cultural sediments of an archaeological site Provenience = vertical and horizontal location of archaeological remains (every object will have a provenience) Association = co-occurrence of archaeological remains Archaeological Interpretation 1. Archaeological Theory 2. Processualism 3. Postprocessualism Archaeological Theory 1. Low-level – identification of and observations on classes of data (e.g. how do you identify the type of rock from which a stone tool is made?) 2. Middle-range – links data to human behaviour that produced it (e.g. how do you distinguish human modification of bone from animal modification?) o Experimental archeology (Flint knapping; pottery manufacture; butchering animals; re-enactment of ancient lives) o Ethnoarcheology (observations of contemporary communities such as San hunter-gatherers) 3. High-level – explanations of human behaviour (e.g. origins of agriculture) Processualism Cultural materialism Processualism  Determinants of human behaviour = environment, technology, economy (infrastructural determinism)  Infrastructure (ecology, technology, economy, demography), structure (social and political organization), superstructure (ideology)  Human behaviour = functional and adaptive Processual Archeology 1. Generalizations about human behaviour (downplays historical particularism) 2. Culture = adaptive system 3. Objectivity and scientific explanation 4. Non-political and ethically neutral Postprocessualism Postmodernism Postprocessualism  Determinants of human behaviour = personal and communal beliefs, values, ideas + previous history  Human behaviour = ideational Site Preservation and Formation Process 9/18/2013 7:29:00 AM 1. Site Preservation Material Remains – organic and inorganic  Living tissue; paper/wood/hide/textiles; bone/shell; stone/glass/fired clay/metal  Decomposition of organics – bacteria/fungus; oxygen; water; warmth; soil acidity P
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